Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39

The Lausanne Movement includes sessions and forums that are dedicated to different issues and topics related to the question of evangelization. Lausanne Occasional Papers are usually presented as reports on the sessions of Issue Groups. In this context, Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 is a report on the conclusions made after â€Å"the Forum for World Evangelization† that was held in Thailand in 2004, and the theme of the Forum was â€Å"A new vision, a new heart, a renewed call†1.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As it is stated in the foreword to the report, it was important to attract more participants to discuss the problems of building the missional congregations and to focus on advantages of tentmaking while seeking â€Å"new direction from the Holy Spirit for world evangelization†2. From this point, Lausanne O ccasional Paper No. 39 presents the information on missional congregations as well as on tentmaking, and it is important to summarize the main points of the paper and to analyze them in the context of the discussed issue. Summary of the Main Points of Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 The report is divided into two main sections, where the first section discusses the concept of a missional congregation as well as the decisions made during the session regarding the building of missional congregations in the community. The second part of the report presents the opinions on tentmaking. It is stated in the report that the information on missional congregations depends on the previous research in local churches during which the role of missions was examined. Thus, the participants of the Forum â€Å"explored how to involve the local church in the expression of the gospel both in the ‘building up’ of the disciples as well as to those outside the faith community, to the ends o f the earth†3. According to the report, a missional congregation is a community or a church of Christ-followers who â€Å"are sent on a mission†4. The first section offers the complete list of advantages of missional congregations. It is stated in the report that missional congregations contribute to building relations and meeting people’s needs; they can address different cultures and pray for the renewal and benefits of other people without references to the religion or culture; their structures are holistic and the detailed discussion of the leadership in terms of missional congregations is provided. The authors of the report also point at the roles of missional congregations’ representatives as missionaries, disciples, and priests. According to the idea of a missional congregation, each Christian should be a missionary that can promote the principles of evangelism as a priest, while supporting the other people’s culture, addressing their needs, and supporting connections of missional congregations5.Advertising Looking for critical writing on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the second part of the report, the main point for discussion is tentmaking. According to the authors, tentmaking is â€Å"a way in which members of the body of Christ can use their professional gifts as a means of taking the gospel to those who otherwise would not hear the Good News†6. As a result, tentmaking is viewed as an effective approach to make people feel secured in spite of such issues as religious intolerance or violence. Thus, the authors of the report discuss the ways of finding and training tentmakers in detail in their report. Reflections and Ideas on Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 can be discussed as an important source in order to understand the role of modern missionaries in spreading the Word of God and principles of evangelization globally. The comments on who can serve as a missionary and how to cooperate with representatives of other cultures are supported with effective examples, and they sound as rather convincing arguments. It is possible to agree that even young people and women can serve as missionaries because they have the belief in their hearts7. Furthermore, much attention is paid to the discussion of the impact of globalization on the development of missional congregations and on opening more opportunities for missionaries. From this perspective, the meaning of the missional congregation can be viewed with references to the following statement: â€Å"Every local congregation is only a true representative of the body of Christ when they serve the world in mission†8. In addition, focusing on the idea of a missional congregation, it is possible to state that it is a kind of an organizational structure that is necessary for people because such holistic structures as congregation s can be a good choice to provide support for individuals. However, there are statements in the report that can provoke more discussion. Concentrating on the role of missionaries and priests that can be played by each Christian regardless the status and position, the authors of the report note that each missionary is oriented to spreading the principles of evangelism among more persons while â€Å"bringing people to church at least monthly† as a â€Å"minimum responsibility†9. Such limits can be discussed as rather surprising. In this situation, missionaries can be viewed as not only serving and encouraging people but also as involving them in a congregation. Nevertheless, the proposed model of the local church life can be successful, and it is possible to agree with the authors that the modern church should be modified to look like a congregation.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other important question to focus on is tentmaking. First, it seems that the idea is rather challenging for the society because the previously followed patterns of the church life differed significantly. However, the authors of the report provide rather useful comments on how tentmaking can be realized in the country and globally and what training should be proposed to tentmakers in order to achieve the higher results. Reading the report, it is possible to conclude that tentmaking is a proper choice for modern communities where it is necessary to avoid the religious intolerance, to cope with different cultural conflicts, to prevent prejudice and aggression toward immigrants, and to meet expectations associated with the globalization changes. From this point, it is possible to agree that such approaches as the building of missional congregations and tentmaking can provide people with more happiness, security, and belief i n God’s mercy. Conclusion Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 provides a reader with a lot of opportunities to think about the aspects of missions and tentmaking. Referring to the report, it is possible to discuss the ways of transformation for traditional local churches while focusing on the advantages of missional congregations described in the report in detail. The authors of the report provide reasons to view missional congregations as a new form of uniting people who follow the teachings and principles of evangelism not only in local communities but also globally. Bibliography Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization. â€Å"The Local Church in Mission: Becoming a Missional Congregation in the Twenty-First Century Global Context and the Opportunities Offered Through Tentmaking Ministry (Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39)†. Web. Footnotes 1 Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization, â€Å"The Local Church in Mission: Becoming a Missional Congregation in the Twenty -First Century Global Context and the Opportunities Offered Through Tentmaking Ministry (Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39)†. 2 Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization, â€Å"The Local Church in Mission†, 3.Advertising Looking for critical writing on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 3 Ibid., 7. 4 Ibid., 7. 5 Ibid., 10. 6 Ibid., 22. 7 Ibid., 10. 8 Ibid., 8. 9 Ibid., 14. This critical writing on Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 was written and submitted by user Phasma to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The Great Depression and the New Deal Essays

The Great Depression and the New Deal Essays The Great Depression and the New Deal Essay The Great Depression and the New Deal Essay Question 1 To fight the Depression, Hoover took a standard Republican route and Roosevelt claimed the American people needed a New Deal. Use specific ideas and programs to compare and contrast Hoovers and Roosevelts approached and evaluate the success. During the Roaring Twenties, the American people seemed to live in a fantasy world of wealth and luxury. The economy was booming due to little government interference and workers were receiving higher wages and began to receive welfare from their employers. Citizens could choose from new consumer products, such as refrigerators, washing machines, and the automobile, which revolutionized the way people traveled in the United States. However, this newfound prosperity would be short lived. At the end of the Roaring Twenties, the American people witnessed the worst economic depression in history and they were apart of it. Unemployment rates skyrocketed through the roof and people were losing millions of dollars after the stock market cr ash in 1929. After having little regulation of the economy during the 1920s, the American people were in desperate need of government assistance. Current President Hoover followed his conservative approach that he had used throughout his term and chose to do little or nothing about the depression, thinking that it would end shortly. The Great Depression did not end quickly and the American people were in need of a strong leader who was willing to take drastic action. The United States chose Franklin Delano Roosevelt to lead America away from depression and his New Deals would return America to its prosperous times. To being with, Herbert Hoover and the majority of the American people thought that the depression would pass in a short period of time. The United States had a few depressions during the 1800s and only two of them lasted longer than a year. However, this depression would last from October of 1929 to the entrance of World War II b

Saturday, November 23, 2019

George C Marshall essays

George C Marshall essays Starting at a very young age George Catlett showed the attributes of a general and leader. Growing up in Uniontown Pennsylvania under the strict rule of his father, George Catlett Marshall Sr. and his mother, The Marshall plan encouraged European nations to work together to achieve economic recovery after World War II. In June 1947, the United States agreed to give aid to Europe if the countries would meet to decide what they needed. The official name of the plan was the European Recovery Program. It was called the Marshall Plan because George Marshall, the Secretary of State at the time first suggested it. The Plan first took action in April 1948; when Congress established the (ECA) Economic Cooperation Administration to administer foreign aid. Seventeen nations formed the (OEEC) Organization for European Economic Cooperation to assist the ECA and develop cooperation among its members. The United States sent about $13 billion in food, machinery, and other products to Europe. Marshall was dedicated to building a strong defense, but he also labored to find peaceful solutions to world conflicts. In December 1953, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in recognition of his contributions to the economic rehabilitation of Europe. He was the first soldier to win that honor. Through the words of Winston Churchill "During my long and close association with successive American administrations, there are few men whose qualities of mind and character have impressed me so deeply as those of General Marshall. He is a great American, but he is far more than that. In war he was as wise and understanding in counsel as he was resolute in action. In peace he was the architect who planned the restoration of our battered European economy and, at the same time, labored tirelessly to establish a system of Western defense. He has always fought victoriously against defeatism, discouragement, and disillusion. Succeeding generations must ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Architecture and Strategic Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Architecture and Strategic Management - Essay Example (Hale, 2000; P 5) Clustering distribution centers in a single geographic area is among the new trends. There is also a move towards transportation specialization, such as companies that depend on substantial parcel air transport. Labor availability and technology advances are factors driving many companies to consolidate their distribution and structural systems into fewer but larger, regional facilities. However, not all companies are consolidating their distribution centers: in many areas, the consolidation trend itself is producing a new generation of smaller, local distribution centers. Experts say that new logistical handling systems and greater outsourcing-in particular, the increased use of third-party logistics providers-seem to be driving this trend. This trend has had a large bearing on how architects are being perceived. With the advent of management as a wholesome science that has trickled into every industry and profession, architects are now expected to handle the managerial aspects of construction and design. One of the major implications for this is cost control and financial projection, health and safety management as well as development control. When involved in a project, the major fo... When involved in a project, the major focus is on the economics and what can be achieved within a given budget. Passing this down to the architects has various dimensions to it. The creative part can be better coordinated and decided in the initial stages so as to avoid chaos later. The demerit of this is that the focus might shift from the creative to the strategic management options where some architects might be ill equipped to handle such responsibilities. The solution to such a problem is a short course or orientation program in financial and development management when educating or selecting architects. Incident Command System for High Rise Buildings Risk is also a major part of the strategic management and development part of a structure. The above diagram is a depiction of an example of sectorisation for a high rise building. The sectorisation for high rise buildings must consist of the optimum deployment and utilization of resources. Managing a high rise building is a matter of creating sectors so as to give out commands easily and smoothly in case of strategic, tactical and operational importance. The sectors for operation must include: Vulnerability assessment & intrusion detection systems Risk assessment & risk management Backups & business continuity planning Disaster recovery planning Computer incident response teams Digital investigation & incident post-mortem Privacy & anonymity in cyberspace; censorship & content filtering Management responsibilities & liabilities The future of information assurance Professional development The Harrow Court Incident The Harrow Court Incident refers to the tragic chain of events where two firefighters - Firefighter Wornham and Firefighter Miller - lost their lives on the 2nd of February, 2005. The

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Social anxiety Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Social anxiety - Research Paper Example People experiencing from social phobia are not afraid of fear, rather they are afraid of what people think about them and how people perceive them. This fear is mostly associated with the negative perception or the belief that people perceive negatively about the person being evaluated. Due to this fear, individuals believe that they are going to be negatively assessed by others, will not be acceptable by others, will be bullied and people might disapprove them. Due to these perceptions, an individual may face the problem of social anxiety. Individuals living in US aging between 18 and 54 are most commonly affected by this disorder, around 3.7% of the total population which accounts for 5.3 million Americans are said to be experiencing this disease (Kahn, 2001, p.51). Twice the number of women are said to be effected by this disorder as compared to men but higher number of men seek assistance to solve this issue (Kahn, 2001, p.51). Mostly an individual is affected by this disease dur ing childhood; individuals who cross the age of 25 have less chances of developing this disorder. Social anxiety is one of the top most common forms of disorders experienced by US. Body During the 1980s, social anxiety was realized as a mental disposition by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder; this realization took place much later than other forms of mental issues (Kearney, 2005, p.11). Heavy amount of research and study has not focused on this disease but quite a lot of physicians and researchers are working towards this social and mental problem. Researchers have been able to identify two forms of social phobia, though it is unclear whether both these problems are similar or distinct. The first kind of social phobia is one in which people are afraid of conducting one of the several forms of social actions such as speaking in front of the public and working or eating while around people. The second division of social phobia is recognized as generalized social phobia, people experiencing this form of social phobia are afraid of conducting all sorts of social activities (Kearney, 2005, p.12). Media has paid attention to social phobia and has stated that pharmaceutical companies are trying to sell medication that is used to solve the issue of shyness and they believe that shyness is not a medical condition (Gambrill, 2012, p.67). The issue of pharmaceutical companies operating in an unethical way to make profits should not be mixed with the issue of social phobia as everyday several individuals throughout the world along with US experience this metal disorder and are not able to complete their social obligations. An individual should not be labeled as someone who is experiencing any disease if they are going through emotional changes that are important for their life. But proper importance needs to be assigned to someone who is actually experiencing certain mental issues. Social phobia or social anxiety itself is a label given to those who are actually suffering from these issues and these labeling aids them in obtaining help from physicians and gain support from others who are experiencing the same challenge. Experiencing social anxiety is not a huge issue, thus others need to accept such people and provide support to them and people suffering from this disorder want to alter the way they are living their lives. It is a myth that socially anxious people do not prefer to be social or are against

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Political philosophy Essay Example for Free

Political philosophy Essay The concept of social contract theory is that in the beginning man lived in the state of nature. They had no government and there was no law to regulate them. There were hardships and oppression on the sections of the society. To overcome from these hardships they entered into two agreements which are:- 1. ?Pactum Unionis? ; and 2. ?Pactum Subjectionis?. By the first pact of unionis, people sought protection of their lives and property. As, a result of it a society was formed where people undertook to respect each other and live in peace and harmony. By the second pact of subjectionis, people united together and pledged to obey an authority and surrendered the whole or part of their freedom and rights to an authority. The authority guaranteed everyone protection of life, property and to a certain extent liberty. Thus, they must agree to establish society by collectively and reciprocally renouncing the rights they had against one another in the State of Nature and they must imbue some one person or assembly of persons with the authority and power to enforce the initial contract. In other words, to ensure their escape from the State of Nature, they must both agree to live together under common laws, and create an enforcement mechanism for the social contract and the laws that constitute it. Thus, the authority or the government or the sovereign or the state came into being because of the two agreements. Analysis of the theory of Social Contract by Thomas Hobbes ? Thomas Hobbes theory of Social Contract appeared for the first time in Leviathan published in the year 1651 during the Civil War in Britain. Thomas Hobbes? legal theory is based on ? Social contract?. According to him, prior to Social Contract, man lived in the State of Nature. Man? s life in the State of NATURE was one of fear and selfishness. Man lived in chaotic condition of constant fear. Life in the State of Nature was ? solitary? , ? poor? , ? nasty? , ? brutish? , and ? short?. ? Man has a natural desire for security and order. In order to secure self- protection and self-preservation, and to avoid misery and pain, man entered Page 2 of 7 into a contract. This idea of self-preservation and self-protection are inherent in man? s nature and in order to achieve this, they voluntarily surrendered all their rights and freedoms to some authority by this contract who must command obedience. As a result of this contract, the mightiest authority is to protect and preserve their lives and property. This led to the emergence of the institution of the ? ruler? or ? monarch? , who shall be the absolute head. Subjects had no rights against the absolute authority or the sovereign and he is to be obeyed in all situations however bad or unworthy he might be. However, Hobbes placed moral obligations on the sovereign who shall be bound by natural law. ? Hence, it can be deduced that, Hobbes was the supporter of absolutism. In the opinion of Hobbes, ? law is dependent upon the sanction of the sovereign and the Government without sword are but words and of no strength to secure a man at all?. He therefore, reiterated that civil law is the real law because it is commanded and enforced by the sovereign. Thus, he upheld the principle of ? Might is always Right?. ? Hobbes thus infers from his mechanistic theory of human nature that humans are necessarily and exclusively self-interested. All men pursue only what they perceive to be in their own individually considered best interests. They respond mechanistically by being drawn to that which they desire and repelled by that to which they are averse. In addition to being exclusively self-interested, Hobbes also argues that human beings are reasonable. They have in them the rational capacity to pursue their desires as efficiently and maximally as possible. From these premises of human nature, Hobbes goes on to construct a provocative and compelling argument for which they ought to be willing to submit themselves to political authority. He did this by imagining persons in a situation prior to the establishment of society, the State of Nature. ? Hobbes impels subjects to surrender all their rights and vest all liberties in the sovereign for preservation of peace, life and prosperity of the subjects. It is in this way the natural law became a moral guide or directive to the sovereign for preservation of the natural rights of the subjects. For Hobbes all law is dependent upon the sanction of the sovereign. All real law is civil law, the law commanded and Page 3 of 7 enforced by the sovereign and are brought into the world for nothing else but to limit the natural liberty of particular men, in such a manner, as they might not hurt but to assist one another and join together against a common enemy. He advocated for an established order. Hence, Individualism, materialism, utilitarianism and absolutions are inter-woven in the theory of Hobbes. Analysis of the theory of Social Contract by John Locke ? John Locke theory of Social Contract is different than that of Hobbes. According to him, man lived in the State of Nature, but his concept of the State of Nature is different as contemplated by Hobbesian theory. Locke? s view about the state of nature is not as miserable as that of Hobbes. It was reasonably good and enjoyable, but the property was not secure. He considered State of Nature as a ? Golden Age?. It was a state of ? peace, goodwill, mutual assistance, and preservation?. In that state of nature, men had all the rights which nature could give them. Locke justifies this by saying that in the State of Nature, the natural condition of mankind was a state of perfect and complete liberty to conduct one? s life as one best sees fit. It was free from the interference of others. In that state of nature, all were equal and independent. This does not mean, however, that it was a state of license. It was one not free to do anything at all one pleases, or even anything that one judges to be in one? s interest. The State of Nature, although a state wherein there was no civil authority or government to punish people for transgressions against laws, was not a state without morality. The State of Nature was pre-political, but it was not pre- moral. Persons are assumed to be equal to one another in such a state, and therefore equally capable of discovering and being bound by the Law of Nature. So, the State   Nature was a ? state of liberty? , where persons are free to pursue their own interests and plans, free from interference and, because of the Law of Nature and the restrictions that it imposes upon persons, it is relatively peaceful. ? Property plays an essential role in Locke? s argument for civil government and the contract that establishes it. According to Locke, private property is created when a person mixes his labour with the raw materials of nature. Given the implications of the Law of Nature, there are limits as to how much property one can own: one is not Page 4 of 7allowed to take so more from nature than oneself can use, thereby leaving others without enough for themselves, because nature is given to all of mankind for its common subsistence. One cannot take more than his own fair share. Property is the linchpin of Locke? s argument for the social contract and civil government because it is the protection of their property, including their property in their own bodies, that men seek when they decide to abandon the State of Nature. ? John Locke considered property in the State of Nature as insecure because of three conditions; they are:- 1. Absence of established law; 2. Absence of impartial Judge; and 3. Absence of natural power to execute natural laws. ? Thus, man in the State of Nature felt need to protect their property and for the purpose of protection of their property, men entered into the ? Social Contract?. Under the contract, man did not surrender all their rights to one single individual, but they surrendered only the right to preserve / maintain order and enforce the law of nature. The individual retained with them the other rights, i. e. , right to life, liberty and estate because these rights were considered natural and inalienable rights of men.? Having created a political society and government through their consent, men then gained three things which they lacked in the State of Nature: laws, judges to adjudicate laws, and the executive power necessary to enforce these laws. Each man therefore gives over the power to protect himself and punish transgressors of the Law of Nature to the government that he has created through the compact. ? According to Locke, the purpose of the Government and law is to uphold and protect the natural rights of men. So long as the Government fulfils this purpose, the laws given by it are valid and binding but, when it ceases to fulfil it, then the laws would have no validity and the Government can be thrown out of power. In Lockes view, unlimited sovereignty is contrary to natural law. ? Hence, John Locke advocated the principle of -? a state of liberty; not of license?. Locke advocated a state for the general good of people. He pleaded for a constitutionally limited government. Page 5 of 7 ? Locke, in fact made life, liberty and property, his three cardinal rights, which greatly dominated and influenced the Declaration of American Independence, 1776. Analysis of the theory of Social Contract by Jean Jacques Rousseau ? Jean Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher who gave a new interpretation to the theory of Social Contract in his work The Social Contract and Emile. According to him, social contract is not a historical fact but a hypothetical construction of reason. Prior to the Social Contract, the life in the State of Nature was happy and there was equality among men. As time passed, however, humanity faced certain changes. As the overall population increased, the means by which people could satisfy their needs had to change. People slowly began to live together in small families, and then in small communities. Divisions of labour were introduced, both within and between families, and discoveries and inventions made life easier, giving rise to leisure time. Such leisure time inevitably led people to make comparisons between themselves and others, resulting in public values, leading to shame and envy, pride and contempt. Most importantly however, according to Rousseau, was the invention of private property, which constituted the pivotal moment in humanity? s evolution out of a simple, pure state into one, characterized by greed, competition, vanity, inequality, and vice. For Rousseau the invention of property constitutes humanity? s ? fall from grace? out of the State of Nature. For this purpose, they surrendered their rights not to a single individual but to the community as a whole which Rousseau termed as ? general will?. ? According to Rousseau, the original ? freedom, happiness, equality and liberty? which existed in primitive societies prior to the social contract was lost in the modern civilisation. Through Social Contract, a new form of social organisation- the state was formed to assure and guarantee rights, liberties freedom and equality. The essence of the Rousseau? s theory of General Will is that State and Law were the product of General Will of the people. State and the Laws are made by it and if the government and laws do not conform to ? general will? , they would be discarded. While the individual parts with his natural rights, in return he gets civil liberties such as freedom of speech, equality, assembly, etc. Page 6 of 7 ? The ? General Will? , therefore, for all purposes, was the will of majority citizens to which blind obedience was to be given. The majority was accepted on the belief that majority view is right than minority view. Each individual is not subject to any other individual but to the ? general will? and to obey this is to obey himself. His sovereignty is infallible, indivisible, unrepresentable and illimitable. ? Thus, Rousseau favoured peoples sovereignty. His natural law theory is confined to the freedom and liberty of the individual. For him, State, law, sovereignty, general will, etc. are interchangeable terms. Rousseau? s theory inspired French and American revolutions and given impetus to nationalism. He based his theory of social contract on the principle of ? Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains?. COMPARISION OF THE THEORY OF SOCIAL CONTRACT OF THOMAS HOBBES, JOHN LOCKE AND JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU 1. Hobbes asserts that without subjection to a common power of their rights and freedoms, men are necessarily at war. Locke and Rousseau, on the contrary, set forth the view that the state exists to preserve and protect the natural rights of its citizens. When governments fail in that task, citizens have the right and sometimes the duty to withdraw their support and even to rebel. 2. Hobbes view was that whatever the state does is just. All of society is a direct creation of the state, and a reflection of the will of the ruler. According to Locke, the only important role of the state is to ensure that justice is seen to be done. While Rousseau view is that the State must in all circumstance ensure freedom and liberty of individuals. 3. Hobbes theory of Social Contract supports absolute sovereign without giving any value to individuals, while Locke and Rousseau supports individual than the state or the government. 4. To Hobbes, the sovereign and the government are identical but Rousseau makes a distinction between the two. He rules out a representative form of government. But, Locke does not make any such distinction. Page 7 of 7 5. Rousseau? s view of sovereignty was a compromise between the constitutionalism of Locke and absolutism of Hobbes. CRITICAL APPREHENTION 1. Rousseau propounded that state, law and the government are interchangeable, but this in present senerio is different. Even though government can be overthrown but not the state. A state exists even there is no government. 2. Hobbes concept of absolutism is totally a vague concept in present scenario. Democracy is the need and examples may be taken from Burma and other nations. 3. According to Hobbes, the sovereign should have absolute authority. This is against the rule of law because absolute power in one authority brings arbitrariness. 4. Locke concept of State of nature is vague as any conflict with regard to property always leads to havoc in any society. Hence, there cannot be a society in peace if they have been conflict with regard to property. 5. Locke concept of laissez-faire is not of welfare oriented. Now in present scenario, every state undertake steps to form a welfare state.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Forest Soils on Acid Essay -- Ecology Nature Environmental Papers

Forest Soils on Acid Forest ecosystems are important both ecologically and economically. It is arguable that the most fundamental dynamic of the forest ecosystem is the forest soil. The acidity of forest soils can alter the chemistry, biota, and hydraulics of the soil, and thus, alter the soil formation characteristics and the soil composition. It follows that the acidification of forest soils demands a great deal of research and attention. Forest soils are commonly found to have pH readings of 4-6, even in areas of moderate to low acid deposition (Binkley et al, p. 4). In fact, an abundance of forest vegetation thrives on and stabilizes most forest soils at relatively low pH levels. It seems as though forest ecosystems generally thrive upon strongly acid soils. Though forest soils naturally are acidic, problems can occur when the acidity levels are raised artificially through processes such as acid rain. This paper will investigate the effects of higher than normal acidity and acid deposition in forest soils to gain a greater understanding of current and potential problems to forest soils and ecosystems. It is important to remember when discussing the implications of high acid in forest soils that there are several general factors that will alter acidic effects on soil chemistry, hydrology, biota, and weathering. These factors include soil type, soil sensitivity, and the quantity of precipitation. Texture, structure, grain size, and consistence are all crucial to defining the soil type or series and also to the amount of time soil is exposed to acid deposition. In a particular study on humus degradation based on simulated "acid rains" conducted by Greszta et al. (1991) revealed the extent to which soil type influenced ... ...556-563. Mulder, J., J.J. M. van Grinsven, and N. van Breemen. 1987. Impacts of acid atmospheric deposition on woodland soils in the Netherlands: III. aluminum chemistry. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51: pp. 1640-1646. Rampazzo, N., and W.E.H. Blum. 1992. Changes in chemistry and minerology of forest soils by acid rain. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 61: pp. 209-220. Sharpe, W.E., B.R. Swistock, and D.R. Dewalle. 1992. A greenhouse study of northern red oak seedling growth on two forest soils at different stages of acidification. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 66: pp. 121-133. Singer, M.J., and D.N. Munns. 1996. Soils: An Introduction. Prentice-Hall, Inc. New Jersey. Tamm, C.O., and L. Hallbacken. 1986. Changes in soil pH over a 50-year period under different forest canopies in SW Sweden. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 31: pp. 337 341.