Wednesday, July 31, 2019
What is the weighted average cost of capital for the Marriott Corporation and cost of capital for each of its divisions? Ã¢â¬â What risk-free rate and risk premium did you use to calculate the cost of equity? Ã¢â¬â How did you measure the cost of debt? Ã¢â¬â How did you measure the beta for each division? Solution What risk-free rate and risk premium did you use to calculate the cost of equity? Ã¢â¬â Risk-free rate proxy The risk-free rate is determined using the yields of U.S. Treasury securities, which are risk-free from default risk. U.S. Treasuries are subject to interest rate risk, therefore, the selected maturity should correspond to an investment horizon. Ã¢â¬â Investment horizon According to the cost-of-capital calculation methodology used by Marriott Corporation, lodging division was treated as long-term, while restaurant and contract services divisions were treated as short-term because those assets had shorter useful lives. Ã¢â¬â Expected return proxy Arithmetic average return is more suitable than geometric mean as it is better in estimating an investmentÃ¢â¬â¢s expected return over a future horizon based on its past performance (geometric mean is a better description of long-term historical performance of an investment). Ã¢â¬â Risk-free interest rate Taking into account the above, arithmetic average annual returns of long-term U.S. government bonds for the period 1951-1987 (4.88%, see Appendix 1) isÃ considered to be risk-free rate for lodging division. Arithmetic average annual returns of short-term U.S. government bonds for year 1987 (5.46%, see Case Exhibit 4) is considered to be risk-free rate for restaurant and contract services divisions. Ã¢â¬â Market proxy S&P 500 index is selected as a market proxy as it is believed to be close to the true market portfolio. As it is important to use historical returns for the same market index used to calculate beta (which is given), an assumption is made that the given leverage data is calculated based on the same S&P 500 index. Ã¢â¬â Market risk premium Market risk premium should be calculated for the same horizon as that used for the risk-free interest rate. Thus a spread between S&P 500 composite returns and long-term U.S. government bond returns for the period 1951-1987 (7.88%, see Appendix 2) is a market risk premium for lodging division. A spread between S&P 500 composite returns and short-term U.S. government bond returns for year 1987 (-0.23%, see Case Exhibit 5) is a market risk premium for restaurant and contract services divisions. How did you measure the cost of debt? Marriott Corporation and each division are given market value-target leverage ratios and credit spreads as well as U.S. government interest rates as of April 1988 (see Case Tables A and B). According to investment horizons discussed above, the following cost of debt is estimated: How did you measure the beta for each division? Ideally, when estimating beta by using past returns, time interval should be consistent with an investment horizon. Betas given in Case Exhibit 3 are estimated over 1986-1987 period. As these are the only betas given, they are assumed to be relevant for both long-term and short-term investment horizons. Equity betas of each division are calculated from comparable hotel and restaurant companies. Equity betas are then unlevered taking into account financing structure of each company according to the following formula: [pic], where Tax = 40% An average of unlevered betas of comparable companies is assumed to be a proxy for unlevered betas of Marriott divisions. For calculations of unlevered betas for each division see Appendix 4. What is the weighted average cost of capital for the Marriott Corporation and cost of capital for each of its divisions? WACC is calculated according to the formula given in the case taking into account the tax shield. Cost of equity is calculated according to CAPM model.
Azerbaijan place of interest Azerbaijan is one of the ancient countries in the world. History of country plays main rule in culture. History of Azerbaijan start form 3rd Ã¢â¬â 5th century till now. Our country has glorious history. For this point this glorious reflected in our culture. This culture includes monuments, folklore, literature and so on. In the 21st , new oil and gas boom helped to improve tourism in Azerbaijan. So government has been spending money for restores this historical building. And this factor affect to our budget.Each year many tourist come to our country. Caravansarai historical monument was built by Sheki Khan. This place was built as resting place for caravans that passed Silk Road through Azerbaijan. Cravansarai was one of the biggest stopover in Caucasus in these years. There are also other interesting and historical places in Sheki. For example Khansari, Juma Masjidi, Silk factory. Gelersen-Gorersen castle is famous their historical accident. Khansarai is popular their special infrastructure in the world.Another interesting places in regions include Nizami`s mausoleum, Shah Abbas Mosque, Old Prison & Lighthouse, Mosque of Sheik Yusuf and so on. Baku is not only capital but also cultural centre of Azerbaijan. Baku is city which is the mix of modern and historical places. Maiden tower is one of the most dominant architecture. It is one of the world's largest Zoroastrian temples . Tower had surrounded Caspian sea many years ago. Atashkag Fire Temple is situated at Surakhani near Baku. This museum was originally the private residence of one of Baku's most famous and oil-millionaires,Ã H. Z. Taghiyev
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Available online at www. sciencedirect. com Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 www. elsevier. com/locate/aos The role of manufacturing practices in mediating the impact of activity-based costing on plant performance Rajiv D. Banker a, Indranil R. Bardhan b b,* , Tai-Yuan Chen c a Fox School of Business, Temple University, 1810 N. 13th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA The University of Texas at Dallas, School of Management, SM 41, 2601 N.Floyd Road, Richardson, TX 75083-0688, USA c School of Business and Management, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clearwater Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Abstract We study the impact of activity-based costing (ABC) on adoption of world-class manufacturing (WCM) practices and plant performance. In contrast to earlier research that estimates the direct impact of ABC on plant performance, we develop an alternative research model to study the role of world-class manufacturing practices as a mediator of the impac t of ABC.Analysis of data from a large cross-sectional sample of US manufacturing plants indicates that ABC has no signi? cant direct impact on plant performance, as measured by improvements in unit manufacturing costs, cycle time, and product quality. We ? nd, however, that WCM practices completely mediate the positive impact of ABC on plant performance, and thus advanced manufacturing capabilities represent a critical missing link in understanding the overall impact of ABC. Our results provide a di? rent conceptual lens to evaluate the relationship between ABC adoption and plant performance, and suggest that ABC adoption by itself does not improve plant performance. O 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction Activity-based costing (ABC) was designed with the objective of providing managers with accurate activity-based cost information by using cost drivers to assign activity costs to products * Corresponding author. Tel. : +1 972 883 2736; fax: +1 972 883 6811. E-mail addresses: [emailÃ protected] edu (R. D. Banker), [emailÃ protected] edu (I. R. Bardhan), [emailÃ protected] k (T. -Y. Chen). and services. Proponents of ABC argue that it provides accurate cost data needed to make appropriate strategic decisions in terms of product mix, sourcing, pricing, process improvement, and evaluation of business process performance (Cooper & Kaplan, 1992; Swenson, 1995). These claims may have led many ? rms to adopt ABC systems. A survey of the 1000 largest ? rms in the United Kingdom showed that 19. 5% of these companies have adopted ABC (Innes & Mitchell, 1995). Another survey released by the Cost Management 0361-3682/$ Ã¢â¬â see front matter O 2006 Elsevier Ltd.All rights reserved. doi:10. 1016/j. aos. 2006. 12. 001 2 R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 Group (1998) of the Institute of Management Accountants indicated that 39% of organizations have approved ABC adoption. 1 Assessing the impact of ABC on manufacturing plant performance is recognized as an important research question. Prior research has typically focused on the direct impact of ABC while ignoring its indirect impact in supporting other organizational capabilities. While past studies have reported moderate levels of bene? s from ABC adoption (Foster & Swenson, 1997; Ittner & Larcker, 2001), few have extended this work to evaluate the linkages between Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËbeliefsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ that represent successful outcomes and the operational measures of plant performance. Furthermore, the de? nition of ABC success has often been vaguely de? ned in terms of subjective beliefs regarding Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ë? nancial bene? tÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ësatisfaction with ABCÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, or Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëuse of ABC system for decision makingÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. In light of these methodological de? ciencies, we argue that a more rigorous approach is needed to measure the impact of ABC.It is also important to focus on proc ess-level performance measures, instead of ? rm-level ? nancial metrics, since the potential impact of ABC implementation may be appropriated before they are re? ected in a ? rmÃ¢â¬â¢s aggregate performance. Evidence of past ABC implementation failures have led researchers to suggest that ABC success depends on other contextual and process factors, such as organizational structure, task characteristics, management support, information technology, and the external environment (Anderson, Hesford, & Young, 2002).In this study, we focus on the mechanism through which ABC impacts plant performance, in terms of its role as an enabler of organizational capabilities rather than its direct impact. Speci? cally, we study the association between implementation of ABC and world-class manufacturing (WCM) capabilities, and their impact on plantlevel operational performance. Using a large cross-sectional sample of US manufacturing plants, we ? nd that ABC has a positive association with the deve lopment of process-centric capabiliImplementation of ABC has been observed not only in manufacturing ? rms but also in service sector ? rms (Cooper & Kaplan, 1992). ties required to successfully implement WCM. We also ? nd that ABC does not have a signi? cant direct impact on plant performance measures. Instead, its impact on plant performance is mediated through the development of WCM capabilities, which allow plants to leverage the process capabilities o? ered by ABC into signi? cant improvements in plant performance. Our study makes contributions in several areas. Our fundamental contribution involves the development of an empirically validated framework which indicates that the impact of ABC on plant performance is completely mediated through its enablement of WCM capabilities.Second, since ABC is implemented and used at the business process level, we focus our attention on operational process performance measures by treating the manufacturing plant as a unit of analysis. This a llows us to avoid the drawbacks associated with prior studies which have mostly focused on aggregated, ? rm-level ? nancial measures. Third, our results suggest that the conceptual lens through which prior research has traditionally studied the impact of ABC needs to be revisited and validated using di? erent types of modeling and measurement approaches. Contrary to the ? dings of Ittner, Lanen, and Larcker (2002) we ? nd that, although the direct impact of ABC is not signi? cant, ABC has a statistically signi? cant indirect e? ect on plant performance that is mediated through its support for advanced manufacturing capabilities. The rest of our paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we review the related literature on ABC, advanced manufacturing practices, and plant performance. We then present our conceptual research framework and research hypotheses, followed by a description of our research data and design.Next, we describe our statistical estimation results, followe d by a discussion of our results, contributions, and limitations. We summarize our ? ndings and the implications of our study in the last section. Background The ABC literature de? nes an activity as a discrete task that a ? rm undertakes to make or deliver R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 3 a product/service, and uses cost drivers to assign activity costs to products, services or customers related to these activities (Cooper, 1988; Ittner et al. 2002). Traditional costing systems use bases like direct labor and machine hours to allocate expenses, associated with indirect and support activities, to products and services. On the other hand, ABC segregates the expenses of indirect and support resources by activities, and then assigns those expenses based on the drivers of these activities (Cooper & Kaplan, 1991). Hence, ABC provides plant mangers with a more structured approach to evaluate the expenses associated with speci? c activitie s used to support a product.The body of prior research regarding the impact of ABC has produced mixed evidence. On one hand, proponents of ABC have argued that ABC helps to capture the economics of production processes more closely than traditional cost-based systems, and may provide more accurate costing data (Cooper & Kaplan, 1991; Ittner, 1999). Prior research suggests that implementation of ABC should lead to operational and strategic bene? ts within organizations (Anderson & Young, 1999; Cooper & Kaplan, 1991). Researchers have argued that operational bene? s may emanate from improved visibility into the (a) economics of the production processes, and (b) causal cost drivers. Strategic bene? ts may arise from availability of better information for product development, sourcing, product mix and other strategic decisions (Anderson, 1995; Shields, 1995). Researchers have claimed that, since ABC may provide greater visibility into business processes and their cost drivers, it may al low managers to eliminate costs related to non-value added activities and improve the e? ciencies of existing processes (Carol? , 1996).Improved information visibility may also enable the deployment of quality-related initiatives by identifying activities that are associated with poor product quality, and their cost drivers (Ittner, 1999; Cooper, Kaplan, Maisel, Morrissey, & Oehm, 1992). Hence, prior research suggests that ABC may be associated with adoption of process improvement activities, such as total quality management (TQM) programs (Ittner & Larcker, 1997a, 1997b; Anderson et al. , 2002). On the other hand, Datar and Gupta (1994) claimed that increasing the number of cost pools and improving the speci? ation of cost bases may increase the frequency of errors in product cost measurement. Banker and Potter (1993) and Christensen and Demski (1997) suggest that the ability of ABC to produce accurate cost estimates depends on other factors, such as the competitiveness of markets and the quality of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s information technology infrastructure. Noreen (1991) suggests that ABC implementation may provide bene? cial results only under speci? c conditions. Similarly, empirical studies that have examined the impact of ABC on ? m performance have also produced mixed results (Ittner & Larcker, 2001; Gordon & Silvester, 1999). Many of these studies rely on managerÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs regarding the success of ABC implementation, but they do not indicate whether ABC adopters achieved higher levels of operational or ? nancial performance compared to non-adopters (Shields, 1995; McGowan & Klammer, 1997; Foster & Swenson, 1997). Other studies have suggested that many ABC adopters have abandoned their implementations, raising concerns about the potential impact of ABC on performance (McGowan & Klammer, 1997). In this study, e explore the relationships between ABC implementation and WCM practices, and their impact on plant performance. Unlike prior studies, which focus on measuring the direct impact of ABC on plant performance, our focus is directed at the role of ABC as an enabler of WCM practices which, in turn, have an impact on plant performance. In their study on relationships between incentive systems and JIT implementation, Fullerton and McWatters (2002, p. 711) note that the shift to world-class manufacturing strategies requires accompanying changes in ? rmsÃ¢â¬â¢ management accounting systems.They argue that by providing a better understanding of the inter-relationships between manufacturing processes, demand uncertainty and product complexity, ABC implementation allows plant managers to direct relevant process improvements which facilitate implementation of other WCM initiatives. Cooper and Kaplan (1991) also claim that ABC may help plant managers to develop a better 4 R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 understanding of the sources of cost variability, which allows them to mana ge resource demand and rationalize changes in product mix.The arguments in support of ABC are based on the presumed comparative advantage that ? rms may derive from greater transparency and accuracy of information obtained from ABC (Cagowin & Bouwman, 2002). However, Kaplan (1993) and others have cautioned that not every ABC implementation will produce direct bene? ts. Indeed, the role of other facilitators and contextual factors, such as implementation of related organizational initiatives, has gained greater importance in this debate (Anderson et al. , 2002; Henri, 2006).A fundamental motivation of our research is to better understand the overall impact of ABC on plant performance by studying its indirect impact on plant WCM capabilities. We argue that ABC implementation should impact plant performance only by supporting the implementation of advanced manufacturing capabilities, which provide managers with the ? exibility to adapt to changing product and demand characteristics. Wi thout such capabilities, ABC is unlikely to improve manufacturing performance by itself. Unlike previous studies that have studied the impact of ABC on ? rm-level performance, we bserve that isolating the impact of ABC at the plant-level allows us to trace ABCÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on speci? c plant performance measures, and overcomes the potential for confounding when multiple business processes are aggregated at the ? rm level. We discuss our conceptual framework and research hypotheses in the next section. Conceptual research model We posit that adoption of ABC by itself may not provide much direct value, but may facilitate the implementation of advanced manufacturing practices and other organizational capabilities which, in turn, may be associated with sustainable improvements in plant performance.Unlike previous research that has in the large part explored the direct impact of ABC, our research model allows for the possibility of plant performance improvements due to implementation o f WCM practices that may be enabled by capabilities associated with the adoption of ABC systems. WCM practices entail a broad range of manufacturing capabilities, which allow plant managers to adapt to the volatility and uncertainty associated with changes in customer demand and business cycles in agile manufacturing environments (Flynn, Schroeder, & Flynn, 1999; Sakakibara, Flynn, Schroeder, & Morris, 1997; Banker, Potter, & Schroeder, 1995).These practices include just-in-time manufacturing (JIT), continuous process improvement, total quality management (TQM), competitive benchmarking, and worker autonomy through the use of self-directed work teams. Advanced manufacturing practices provide the capabilities necessary to react to rapid changes in lot sizes and setup times, as the manufacturing focus shifts to ? exible and agile processes that are characterized by quick changeover techniques to handle production of low volume orders with high product variety (Kaplan, 1983; Flynn et a l. 1999). Traditional costing systems, which are based on assumptions of long production runs of a standard product with static speci? cations, are not relevant in such dynamically changing environments. However, proponents have argued that ABC may provide more accurate information on the activities and transactions that impact product costs in manufacturing environments characterized by production of smaller lot sizes, high broad mix, and frequent changeovers (Krumwiede, 1998). By providing timely information about the costs of esources, especially when production runs are shorter or the production method changes, ABC implementation may provide the process infrastructure necessary to support managerial decision-making capabilities in fast-paced manufacturing processes (Kaplan, 1983). Hence, we study the impact of ABC on its ability to support implementation of WCM capabilities, and examine its indirect impact on plant performance through its enablement of such capabilities. Our con ceptual research model describing the relationship between ABC, manufacturing capabilities and plant performance is shown in Fig. . The model comprises of two stages. The ? rst stage describes how ABC may facilitate implementation of world-class manufacturing practices. R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 5 Activity-based Costing (ABC) H1 ?QUALITY H2 ? TIME H3 ? COST World-class Manufacturing (WCM Plant Performance SIZE PLANTAGE DISCRETE DOWNSIZE VOLUME MIX Plant-level Control Variables Plan Fig. 1. Conceptual research model. Note: Plant performance is represented using three separate dependent variables that are grouped together in the gure for ease of representation. Our regression models are estimated using each performance variable as a dependent variable in a separate multivariate regression. The second stage describes the impact of advanced manufacturing capabilities, as embodied by WCM, on plant performance. The key di? erence bet ween our research model and that of prior studies is our focus on the relationship between ABC and WCM, and the role of manufacturing capabilities as a mediator of the impact of ABC on plant performance, as represented by the dotted arrow in Fig. 1.Impact of activity-based costing on world-class manufacturing In his early work on the challenges of implementing new types of management accounting models to measure manufacturing performance, Kaplan (1983, p. 702) noted that Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ë. . . accounting systems must be tightly integrated with plant production planning and scheduling systems so that production managers are rewarded for e? cient utilization of bottleneck resources and reduced inventory levels throughout the plant. . . Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. Prior research has suggested that ABC is more bene? cial when it supports the implementation of advanced manufacturing practices (Shields & Young, 1989;Kaplan, 1992; Cooper, 1994). For example, Anderson and Young (1999) reviewed several A BC studies that reported positive relations between the success of ABC adoption and implementation of various advanced manufacturing practices. They argue that ABC facilitates more accurate identi? cation and measurement of the cost drivers associated with value added and non-value added manufacturing activities, which makes it easier to develop better cost control and resource allocation capabilities Ã¢â¬â necessary prerequisites for successful implementation of worldclass manufacturing.In world-class manufacturing environments, the accounting systems, compensation, incentive structure, and performance measurement practices are di? erent from those that are used in traditional manufacturing (Miltenburg, 1995; Milgrom & Roberts, 1995). For example, traditional manufacturing processes entail the use of performance measures that track unit manufacturing costs related to (a) equipment utilization, (b) ratios of direct and indirect labor to volume, (c) number of set-ups, and (d) numb er of orders. On the other hand, erformance measures relevant to WCM implementation track (a) actual cost and quality, (b) cycle time reduction, (c) delivery time and ontime delivery rate, and (d) actual production as a percentage of planned production (Miltenburg, 1995, p. 336). By enabling the measurement of costs related to speci? c activities, products, and customers, ABC may provide more accurate identi? cation and measurement of new types of performance measures that are a critical component of successful WCM implementations (Argyris & Kaplan, 1994; Krumwiede, 1998).Proponents claim that ABC may support the implementation of WCM capabilities in several ways. First, by allowing plant managers to track costs accurately and enabling identi? cation of redundant resources, ABC may support implementation of TQM and other quality/process improvement programs. 2 Second, ABC may support process-related investments in cycle time See Ittner (1999) for an example of the bene? ts of activi tybased costing for quality improvement at a telecommunications ? rm. 2 6 R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 reduction by facilitating the timely identi? ation of non-value-added activities (Kaplan, 1992). Third, ABC may allow plant managers to make better resource allocation decisions by focusing the product line and accurately anticipating the e? ect of changes in the product mix on the pro? tability of manufacturing operations. Hence, they argue that ABC implementation may provide the process discipline necessary to analyze activities, gather and trace costs to activities, and establish relevant output measuresÃ¢â¬âcapabilities that are useful in ? exible manufacturing environments (Cooper & Kaplan, 1991, 1999).Implementation of ABC may be associated with greater use of self-directed teams and worker autonomy, which are also important capabilities of WCM (Anderson & Young, 1999). Similarly, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëbest practicesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â ¬â¢ data on cost pools, activity centers, and cost drivers can be incorporated into the design and use of ABC systems which may improve plant managersÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities to make better strategic product decisions, and thereby support implementation of WCM programs (Elnathan, Lin, & Young, 1996; Atkinson, Banker, Kaplan, & Young, 2001). Therefore, we posit that ABC facilitates successful implementation of WCM capabilities.In contrast to Ittner et al. (2002), who treat advanced manufacturing practices as causal variables in explaining adoption of ABC, we posit that ABC supports implementation of WCM practices, which in turn, may improve plant performance. Accordingly, Hypothesis H1: Plants which implement ABC are more likely to implement world-class manufacturing practices. Impact of world-class manufacturing on plant performance Implementation of WCM practices can enable plants to react quickly to changes in customer demand, and thereby carry lower levels of inventory, improve cost e ? iencies, increase the ? exibility of production facilities through use of planning and scheduling software, and improve overall plant productivity (Banker, Bardhan, Chang, & Lin, 2006). Investments in JIT and ? exible manufacturing practices help to reduce setup times that permit shorter production runs, thereby allowing for more e? cient inventory control, as well as lower product defect rates (Kaplan, 1983; Hendricks & Singhal, 1997; Sakakibara et al. , 1997).Techniques that are commonly deployed, within the scope of JIT implementations, include pull/Kanban systems, lot-size reductions, cycletime reductions, quick changeover techniques, and bottleneck removal practices. Research on the performance impact of JIT has been extensively documented in the literature (Sakakibara et al. , 1997; Hendricks & Singhal, 1997). Reported bene? ts range from reduced work in progress and ? nished goods, to better quality and higher ? rm productivity. Based on prior empirical evidence, researcher s have found that ? ms which adopted JIT production are better aligned to customer needs, have shorter lead times, and faster time to market (Srinivasan, Kekre, & Mukhopadhyay, 1994). Implementation of WCM practices also entails adoption of other process improvement practices, such as total quality management (TQM) and continuous process improvement programs (Fullerton & McWatters, 2002). The fundamental elements of process improvement programs consist of competitive benchmarking, statistical process control, and employee empowerment (Schroeder & Flynn, 2001).Such process improvement practices, stemming from greater attention to product quality and time to market issues may enable manufacturing plants to develop advanced manufacturing capabilities. Based on ? rm-level data, researchers have found that implementation of TQM and other advanced manufacturing practices have a positive impact on ? rm performance, through realization of lower product cost, higher quality, and better on-ti me delivery performance (Banker, Field, & Sinha, 2001; Banker et al. , 1995; Hendricks & Singhal, 1997; Ittner & Larcker, 1995, 1997a).Hence, we posit that implementation of WCM practices in manufacturing plants may be positively related to improvements in plant-level performance as de? ned by plant cost, quality and time-to-market measures. Therefore, we hypothesize that R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 7 Hypothesis H2: Plants that have implemented WCM practices are more likely to be associated with signi? cant improvements in plant performance. H2a: Plants which implement WCM practices are more likely to realize improvements in plant manufacturing costs.H2b: Plants with WCM practices are more likely to realize improvements in plant quality. H2c: Plants with WCM practices are more likely to realize improvements in time to market. Impact of ABC on plant performance: a mediation mechanism Proponents have argued that, by enabling easier identi? cation of non-value added activities and simpli? cation of cost measurements, ABC enables implementation of advanced manufacturing practices, especially in processes that are characterized by quick changeovers and a range of support activities. Documenting and understanding activities is a necessary prerequisite to improving business processes, since activities are the building blocks of business processes. If ABC adoption results in more accurate costing then plant performance may improve because of greater ability to implement process improvement initiatives, facilitating the simpli? cation of business processes by removing non-value added activities. Successful implementation of WCM practices requires the development of business process models to identify and eliminate non-value added activities.In this respect, ABC implementation entails a priori development of such process models to identify and analyze activities, trace costs to activities, and analyze activity-based costs. Similarly, plant managers can use information gathered through ABC analyses to conduct a Pareto analyses of the major cost drivers, an important ingredient in most TQM and competitive bench3 marking initiatives. Scenario analysis related to pricing, product mix, and pro? tability is also possible, which are useful in the deployment of JIT capabilities.Hence, successful WCM implementations may leverage the streamlining of business processes due to ABC adoption. ABC analyses allow plants to develop activitybased management (ABM) business models which managers may adopt to improve their organizational e? ectiveness (Chenhall & Lang? eld-Smith, 1998). In addition, ABC implementation may be correlated with and hence serve as a surrogate for unobservable factors, such as management leadership and worker training, that are important components of successful WCM implementation. Hence, implementation of WCM may allow plants to leverage the capabilities o? ered by ABC (i. . accurate co st allocations and management support) into improvements in plant performance. Our approach di? ers from the prior literature which has primarily studied the direct impact of ABC on plant performance (Ittner et al. , 2002). Instead, we argue that it is important to view the role of ABC as a potential enabler of manufacturing capabilities, and study its indirect impact on plant performance as completely mediated by WCM. This perspective argues that ABC may support improvements in manufacturing capabilities which are, in turn, associated with improvements in plant performance (Henri, 2006).Hypothesis H3: The positive association between ABC implementation and plant performance is mediated through implementation of worldclass manufacturing practices. An alternative perspective, with respect to the role of ABC, is that the interaction between WCM capabilities and ABC implementation may jointly determine plant performance. The interaction perspective argues that advanced manufacturing ca pabilities, when combined with deployment of ABC methods, create complementarities that explain variations in plant performance (Cagowin & Bouwman, 2002). In other words, WCM and ABC may each have a direct e? ct on performance, but would add more value when used in combination (i. e. , the presence of WCM will increase the Low volume production creates more transactions per unit manufactured than high volume production (Cooper & Kaplan, 1988). 8 R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 strength of the relationship between ABC and performance). In this framework, the interaction e? ects of ABC and WCM need to be estimated to study the overall impact of ABC on plant performance. We explore the interaction perspective further when we discuss our estimation results. Fig. represents the conceptual research model that describes our hypothesized relationship between ABC and implementation of WCM practices, and the role of WCM as a mediator of the im pact of ABC on plant performance. Research design We now describe the characteristics of the data collected and approach for measuring the variables of interest in our study. Data collection Data for this research was drawn from a survey of manufacturing plants across the US, conducted in the year 1999 by IndustryWeek and PricewaterhouseCoopers Consulting. The survey consisted of a questionnaire which was mailed to plants with two-digit standard industrial classi? ation (SIC) codes from 20 to 39, and that employed a minimum of 100 people. Data were collected on a range of manufacturing, management and accounting practices used within each plant. We have described the questions relevant to our research model in Appendix. The survey was mailed to approximately 27,000 plant managers and controllers from IndustryWeekÃ¢â¬â¢s database of manufacturing plants. Plant managers provided data on the extent of implementation of ABC and a broad range of advanced manufacturing practices and pla nt characteristics. Data on plant performance measures were based on assessments of plant records by plant controllers. A total of 1757 plants responded to the questionnaire for an overall response rate of 6. 5%. The usable sample contains 1250 plants that provided Since data on the independent and dependent variables was provided by di? erent sources, this mitigates the concerns associated with common methods bias. 4 complete responses to the variables of interest in our model. 5 We present the distribution of the manufacturing plants in our sample by industry in Table 1, and compare it to the distribution of manufacturers, reported in the Statistical Abstract of the United States and published by the US Census Bureau (2000).Since we obtained the data from a secondary data source, we did not have information with respect to the pro? les of non-respondent plants. To evaluate the generalizibility of our ? ndings, we compared the average plant productivity per employee of our sample p lants to the average productivity of all US manufacturing plants, as reported by the US Census Bureau (2000). The average plant productivity per employee of our sample was $221,698, while the average productivity in the US Census data was reported to be $225,440. The di? erence in average plant productivity was not statistically signi? cant (t-statistic = 0. 37; p-value = 0. 35).Measurement of variables The ABC adoption variable was de? ned based on the response to the survey question asking whether ABC was implemented at the plant (0 = not implemented, 1 = plan to implement, 2 = extensively implemented). For the purpose of our study, we collapsed the ? rst two categories into one category, which represents plants that have not implemented ABC at the time of the survey. Hence, we measure ABC as a 0Ã¢â¬â1 dummy variable where zero represents Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëno implementationÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ and one represents Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëextensive implementationÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. The number of plan ts that have adopted ABC extensively in our sample is 248, an adoption rate of 19. 8%.We have three dependent variables in our research model. The variable DCOST denotes the change in unit manufacturing costs in the last ? ve years. DQUALITY denotes the change in plant ? rst-pass quality yield in the last ? ve years. DTIME 5 While the net usable response rate of 4. 6% is small, it is comparable to large plant operations surveys as reported in Stock, Greis, and Kasarda (2000) and Roth and van der Velde (1991). R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 Table 1 Distribution of sample plants by industry Industry sector Non-durable manufacturing Food and kindred products Tobacco products Textile ill products Apparel and other textile products Lumber and wood products Furniture and ? xtures Paper and allied products Printing and publishing Chemicals and allied products Petroleum and coal products Durable manufacturing Rubber and plastics products Le ather and leather products Stone, clay and glass products Primary metal industries Fabricated metal products Industrial machinery and equipment Electronics and electrical equipment Transportation equipment Instruments and related products Miscellaneous manufacturing Total a b 9 SIC code Number of plants in sample 47 1 23 13 25 43 56 19 86 5 74 5 39 67 153 225 168 103 76 22 1250Percent of sample 3. 76% 0. 08 1. 84 1. 04 2. 00 3. 44 4. 48 1. 52 6. 88 0. 40 5. 92 0. 40 3. 12 5. 36 12. 24 18. 00 13. 44 8. 24 6. 08 1. 76 100% Percent of US manufacturersa 5. 76% 0. 03 1. 70 6. 45 10. 13 3. 33 1. 79 17. 19 3. 41 0. 59 0. 52 0. 51 4. 52 1. 73 10. 47 15. 54 4. 71 3. 41 3. 23 4. 97 100% % ABC Adopters in sampleb 12. 76% 100 21. 74 38. 46 16. 00 27. 91 28. 57 26. 32 26. 74 40. 00 13. 51 40. 00 20. 51 16. 42 16. 99 13. 03 19. 05 26. 21 17. 11 31. 82 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Source: US Census Bureau (2000).The percentage equals the number of ABC adopters divide d by the number of plants in the 2-digit SIC group. represents a factor comprising of the change in manufacturing cycle time and the change in lead time during the last ? ve years, and thus is indicative of the Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëtime to marketÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ for each plant. The measurement scale of the plant performance variables was ordered in manner such that higher values represent improvements in performance over time. 6 WCM represents a composite factor that consists of six types of advanced manufacturing practices, as described in the survey questionnaire.The six indicators were measured using a 0Ã¢â¬â1 scale, where zero represents Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëno or some implementationÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, and one indicates Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëextensive implementationÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. Next, we constructed WCM as a six-item 6 A value of DQUALITY = 1 indicates that ? rst-pass quality yield Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëdeclined more than 20%Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, while DQUALITY = 5 indicates that quality yield Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ë improved more than 20%Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. On the other hand, DCOST = 1 indicates that unit manufacturing costs Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëincreased more than 20%Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, while DCOST = 7 suggests that costs Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëdecreased more than 20%Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. summative index that represents the degree of implementation of the six types of advanced manufacturing capabilities. This index measures both the range and depth of manufacturing capabilities in each plant. Hence, for each plant, WCM consists of seven levels and can take any value between zero and six (since the six indicators are measured as 0Ã¢â¬â1 variables). Our approach for constructing this summative measure of manufacturing capability is consistent with similar approaches in the literature (Krumwiede, 1998; Loh & Venkatraman, 1995) that use a summative index when an increase in any of the indicators is associated with a corresponding increase in the construct of interest.We note that exploratory factor analyses (EFA) sug gests that the six items load on a single factor (with Eigen value = 2. 13) which accounts for 36% of variance in the data. Furthermore, the EFA provides support for the validity and unidimensionality of the WCM factor. 7 10 R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 (0. 07) (0. 00) (0. 01) (0. 27) (0. 01) (0. 41) (0. 87) (0. 02) (0. 00) (0. 00) (0. 72) (0. 00) (0. 76) (0. 79) (0. 68) (0. 05) (0. 40) (0. 60) (0. 00) (0. 04) (0. 00) (0. 96) (0. 04) (0. 29) (0. 00) (0. 00) (0. 60) 0. 06 0. 21 A0. 00 0. 06 A0. 03 A0. 13 0. 8 A0. 01 1. 00 0. 18 0. 29 1. 00 7. 00 4. 53 5. 00 1. 46 (0. 45) (0. 20) (0. 00) (0. 22) (0. 34) (0. 00) ABC WCM DISCRETE DOWNSIZE SIZE PLANTAGE VOLUME MIX DCOST DQUALITY DTIME Minimum Maximum Mean Median Std. Dev. 1. 00 0. 12 A0. 03 0. 02 0. 05 0. 01 0. 02 0. 01 0. 06 0. 01 0. 06 0. 00 1. 00 0. 19 0. 00 0. 39 (0. 00) (0. 22) (0. 40) (0. 06) (0. 86) (0. 46) (0. 81) (0. 03) (0. 59) (0. 04) 0. 11 1. 00 A0. 01 0. 03 0. 22 A0. 03 0. 09 0. 03 0. 23 0. 25 0. 31 0. 00 6. 00 4. 00 4. 00 1. 61 (0. 70) (0. 35) (0. 00) (0. 24) (0. 00) (0. 22) (0. 00) (0. 00) (0. 00) A0. 03 A0. 03 1. 00 A0. 09 0. 03 A0. 06 A0. 8 0. 04 A0. 00 0. 01 0. 08 0. 00 1. 00 0. 59 1. 00 0. 49 (0. 00) (0. 33) (0. 02) (0. 00) (0. 15) (0. 90) (0. 74) (0. 00) 0. 02 0. 04 A0. 08 1. 00 0. 03 0. 10 A0. 02 0. 01 0. 06 0. 01 A0. 03 1. 00 3. 00 1. 75 2. 00 0. 76 (0. 29) (0. 00) (0. 38) (0. 60) (0. 04) (0. 64) (0. 28) 0. 05 0. 21 0. 03 0. 03 1. 00 0. 06 0. 20 0. 04 A0. 02 0. 03 0. 07 1. 00 5. 00 2. 73 2. 00 1. 08 (0. 04) (0. 00) (0. 17) (0. 53) (0. 35) (0. 01) (0. 09) (0. 00) (0. 30) (0. 22) 0. 02 A0. 01 A0. 07 0. 10 0. 08 1. 00 A0. 07 0. 06 A0. 12 A0. 04 A0. 29 1. 00 4. 00 3. 57 4. 00 0. 78 (0. 01) (0. 02) (0. 00) (0. 12) (0. 30) (0. 47) (0. 9) (0. 01) (0. 00) (0. 00) 0. 02 0. 08 A0. 18 A0. 02 0. 19 A0. 07 1. 00 A0. 22 0. 08 0. 02 A0. 02 0. 00 1. 00 0. 54 1. 00 0. 50 (0. 46) (0. 01) (0. 00) (0. 42) (0. 00) (0. 01) (0. 00) (0. 00) (0. 52) (0. 54) 0. 01 0. 04 0. 04 0. 01 0. 04 0. 09 A0. 22 1. 00 A0. 02 A0. 01 0. 07 0. 00 1. 00 0. 75 1. 00 0. 43 (0. 81) (0. 18) (0. 15) (0. 66) (0. 15) (0. 00) (0. 00) (0. 510) (0. 78) (0. 02) (0. 00) (0. 00) 0. 01 0. 24 0. 01 0. 01 0. 01 A0. 05 0. 02 A0. 01 0. 18 1. 00 0. 26 1. 00 6. 00 3. 14 3. 00 0. 90 p-Values are shown in parentheses. Spearman correlation coe? cients are in the top triangle and Pearson coe? ients are in the bottom triangle. (0. 00) 0. 05 0. 31 0. 08 A0. 03 0. 08 A0. 02 A0. 00 0. 06 0. 29 0. 26 1. 00 1. 00 6. 00 3. 30 3. 50 0. 86 Table 2 Descriptive statistics and correlations of model variables (N = 1250) Estimation results First, we estimate the impact of ABC on the implementation of WCM using an ordered logit regression model, where the dependent variable represents an ordered choice variable of seven possible states of WCM implementation: WCM = 0 (no or some implementation on all six indicators) and WCM = 6 (extensive implementation on all six indicators).Our methodology is cons istent with KrumwiedeÃ¢â¬â¢s (1998) approach to evaluate the antecedents of di? erent stages of ABC implementation in ABC WCM DISCRETE We include additional variables to control for the impact of plant characteristics on manufacturing capabilities and plant performance. There are six control variables in our model, which include plant size (SIZE) measured in terms of number of employees, plant age in years (PLANTAGE), nature of manufacturing operations (DISCRETE), degree of product mix (MIX), product volume (VOLUME), and the extent of downsizing in the last ? ve years (DOWNSIZE).Larger plants are more likely to have the scale and ? nancial resources required to justify adoption of advanced manufacturing practices and activity-based costing programs. SIZE is likely to impact plant performance since smaller plants are likely to be more agile in responding to customer needs compared to larger plants ceteris paribus (Hendricks & Singhal, 1997). Plant AGE is also likely to play a signi ? cant role since older plants are less likely to adopt advanced manufacturing practices and often fail to realize the impact of technology-enabled processes on plant performance. Product MIX is de? ed as the mix of products produced and is measured as a binary variable based on low or high product diversity. Plants with high product diversity are more likely to implement ABC (Cooper, 1989) as it may provide more accurate estimates of overhead usage. DISCRETE represents a binary variable with a value of one if the nature of manufacturing for primary products is discrete manufacturing, and zero for process or hybrid manufacturing. Descriptive statistics of our model variables are provided in Table 2. DOWNSIZE SIZE PLANTAGE VOLUME MIX DCOST DQUALITY DTIME R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 1 manufacturing ? rms. Tests for multicollinearity (Belsley, Kuh, & Welsch, 1980) indicated no evidence of multicollinearity in our data (BKW index = 1 . 06, variance in? ation factor = 1. 15). Our ordered logit regression results are presented in Table 3. The Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëlogit coe? cientÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ column reports the results of an ordered logit test for the seven states of WCM. The logit results indicate that our model has significant explanatory power (Chi-square = 82. 67; pseudo R2 = 0. 07). The ordered logit coe? cients indicate that adoption of ABC has a positive impact on WCM implementation (coe? ient value = 0. 499; v2 = 15. 15; p-value < 0. 0001). Hence, our results support hypothesis H1, and suggest that plants that implement ABC are more likely to implement WCM practices. The ordered logit results also indicate that plant SIZE and product VOLUME have a positive impact on the extent of WCM implementation. Larger plants may be more likely to implement WCM capabilities due to availability of greater plant resources, and plants with high VOLUME may be more likely to implement WCM to deal with the complexity involved in managing high volume production.The mediating role of WCM Next, we estimate the impact of ABC and WCM on the three measures of plant performance, DCOST, DQUALITY, and DTIME, using ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions. For each dependent variable, we estimate the relationships between ABC, WCM and plant performance as speci? ed by the following system of equations: DPERFORMANCE ? a0 ? a1 A ABC ? a2 A DOWNSIZE ? a3 A SIZE ? a4 A PLANTAGE ? a5 A DISCRETE ? a6 A VOLUME ? a7 A MIX ? e1 DPERFORMANCE ? b0 ? b1 A WCM ? b2 A DOWNSIZE ? b3 A SIZE ? b4 A PLANTAGE ? b5 A DISCRETE ? b6 A VOLUME ? b7 A MIX ? e2 ? 2? ?1? DPERFORMANCE ? d0 ? 1 A WCM ? d2 A ABC ? d3 A DOWNSIZE ? d4 A SIZE ? d5 A PLANTAGE ? d6 A DISCRETE ? d7 A VOLUME ? d8 A MIX ? e3 ?3? In order to test our proposed model, we follow the approach prescribed by Baron and Kenny (1986). Eq. (1) estimates the direct impact of ABC on plant performance. Eq. (2) estimates the marginal impact of the mediating variable, WCM, on plant per formance. Eqs. (1) and (2) represent non-nested model speci? cations which estimate the independent impact of ABC and WCM, respectively, on plant performance. Finally, both predictor variables, ABC and WCM, are included in a single regression model speci? d in Eq. (3). We observe that Eq. (2) represents a complete mediation model, whereas Eq. (3) represents a partial mediation model where the impact of ABC is partially mediated through WCM. The dependent variable, DPERFORMANCE, represents the respective change (D) in the three performance measures: COST, QUALITY, and TIME. The system of equations estimated separately for each performance measure. We report OLS regression results in Table 4. 8 The estimated coe? cients in the three columns of each panel in Table 4 correspond to the regression models speci? ed in Eqs. (1)Ã¢â¬â(3).First, we estimate the direct impact of ABC on plant performance in the absence of the WCM variable. Estimated regression coe? cients for Eq. (1) are show n in columns (1), (4) and (7) of Table 4 (i. e. , ? rst column of each panel). The regression coe? cient of ABC is statistically signi? cant for DCOST and DTIME (p < 0. 10), and it appears that ABC has a positive impact on improvements in plant costs and time to market. 9 ABC does not have signi? cant explanatory power in the DQUALITY regression model as indicated by low R2 values. 8 We also used ordered logit regressions to estimate the system of equations in (1).The ordered logit results are consistent with our OLS estimation results. 9 The adjusted R2 for these models was low (between 1. 38% and 2. 75%) and our analysis of the F-statistics indicates that only the DCOST regression model was signi? cant at p < 0. 05. We have not included these results in our tables due to space limitations. 12 R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 Table 3 Factors in? uencing WCM implementation: ordered logit regression Variable ABC DOWNSIZE SIZE PLANTAGE DISCRETE VOLUME MIX Pseudo-R2 (%) Chi-square N ***, **, * IndicatesLogit coe? cient 0. 50 0. 05 0. 34 A0. 08 A0. 02 0. 212 0. 19 0. 07 82. 67*** (p-value < 0. 001) 1250 Chi-square 15. 15*** 0. 56 48. 56*** 1. 73 0. 02 4. 04** 2. 56 signi? cance at the 1%, 5%, and 10% (one-sided) level, respectively. Variable de? nition ABC = 1 if implemented extensively, zero if there is no ABC implementation in the plant. WCM = Six-item summative index that measures the degree of implementation of six types of manufacturing practices: JIT, TQM, Kanban, continuous process improvement, competitive benchmarking, self-direct teams. WCM can take any value between zero and six.For each manufacturing practice, 0 = no or some implementation, 1 = extensive implementation D(QUALITY): Change in ? rst-pass quality yield of ? nished products over the last ? ve years: 1 = Declined more than 20%, 2 = declined 1Ã¢â¬â20%, 3 = no change, 4 = improved 1Ã¢â¬â20%, 5 = improved more than 20%. D(COST): Change in un it manufacturing costs, excluding purchased materials, over the last ? ve years: 1 = Increased more than 20%, 2 = increased 11Ã¢â¬â20%, 3 = increased 1Ã¢â¬â10%, 4 = no change, 5 = decreased 1Ã¢â¬â10%, 6 = decreased 11Ã¢â¬â20%, 7 = decreased more than 20%.D(TIME): Factor comprised of the 5-year change in manufacturing cycle time and plant lead time: D(Cycle time): Change in manufacturing cycle time over the last ? ve years: 1 = No reduction, 2 = decreased 1Ã¢â¬â10%, 3 = decreased 11Ã¢â¬â20%, 4 = decreased 21Ã¢â¬â50%, 5 = decreased more than 50%. D(Lead time): Change in customer lead time over the last ? ve years: 1 = Increased more than 20%, 2 = increased 1Ã¢â¬â20%, 3 = no change, 4 = decreased, 1Ã¢â¬â20%, 5 = decreased more than 20%. DISCRETE = 1 if nature of manufacturing operations for primary products is discrete; else zero. DOWNSIZE: Extent of plant-level downsizing in the past ? e years. 1 = No change, 2 = extent of downsizing increased 1Ã¢â¬â10%, 3 = extent of downsizing increased 11Ã¢â¬â20%, 4 = extent of downsizing increased 21Ã¢â¬â50%, 5 = increased 51Ã¢â¬â75%, and 6 = increased more than 75%. SIZE: Number of employees at the plant location. 1 = Less than 100; 2 = 100Ã¢â¬â249; 3 = 250Ã¢â¬â499; 4 = 500Ã¢â¬â999; 5 = greater than 1000 employees. PLANTAGE: Number of years since plant start-up. 1 = Less than 5 years; 2 = 5Ã¢â¬â10 years; 3 = 11Ã¢â¬â20 years; 4 = more than 20 years. VOLUME = 1 if plant exhibits high volume production, and zero otherwise. MIX = 1 if plant exhibits high product mix, and zero otherwise.Next, estimated regression coe? cients for Eq. (2) are shown in columns (2), (5) and (8) of Table 4. The regression results indicate that the impact of WCM on all plant performance measures is positive and signi? cant at p < 0. 01. In other words, implementation of advanced manufacturing capabilities is associated with improvements in plant costs (b1 = 0. 20, p < 0. 01), quality (b1 = 0. 14, p < 0. 01), and time to market (b1 = 0. 16, p < 0. 01). Hence, our results support hypothesis H2 with respect to the association between WCM implementation and performance. Finally, we estimate the full model in Eq. 3) that includes the direct impact of WCM on plant performance and an additional direct path from ABC to the dependent variable. The full model results, as reported in columns (3), (6), and (9) of Table 4, indicate that ABC does not have a direct, signi? cant impact on any of the three measures of plant performance. When the impact of the WCM R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 2. 61 (17. 78)*** 0. 16 (11. 02)*** 0. 05 (0. 83) A0. 04 (A1. 33) 0. 01 (0. 51) A0. 02 (A0. 65) 0. 14 (2. 83)*** A0. 02 (A0. 42) 0. 09 (1. 72)* 1250 0. 102 18. 52*** 13 t-Statistics are shown in parentheses. **, **, * Indicates signi? cance at the 1%, 5%, and 10% level, respectively. Note: Plant performance is represented using three separate dependent variables. We estimated the three regression models as separate multivariate regressions. variable is included in the model, ABC adoption is not associated with any improvement in plant costs (d2 = 0. 14, t-stat = 1. 43), quality (d2 = A0. 03, t-stat = A0. 47), or time to market (d2 = 0. 05, t-stat = 0. 83). In contrast, WCM continues to have a signi? cant positive impact on all plant performance measures, and the magnitude of the WCM coe? cient is very similar to its estimate in Eq. (2).The adjusted R2 values for the complete mediation models are not signi? cantly di? erent from the R2 values of their corresponding full (i. e. , partial mediation) models. For instance, adding the ABC variable in column (3) results in an increase of 0. 1% (=0. 001) in the DCOST modelÃ¢â¬â¢s explanatory power, compared to its corresponding R2 shown in column (2). Similarly, introducing ABC in the DQUALITY and DTIME models, results in statistically insigni? cant increases in model R2 of 0. 0% and 0. 1%, respectively. Hence, our results support hypothesis H3, indicating that WCM completely mediates the impact of ABC on plant performance.We also test an alternative speci? cation based on a perspective that the interaction between ABC and WCM implementation may have an impact on plant performance. The interaction model (Luft & Shields, 2003) is speci? ed as DPERFORMANCE ? c0 ? c1 A WCM ? c2 A ABC ? c3 A ABC A WCM ? c4 A DOWNSIZE ? c5 A SIZE ? c6 A PLANTAGE ? c7 A DISCRETE ? c8 A VOLUME ? c9 A MIX ? e4 (9) Panel C DTIME (8) (7) (6) Panel B DQUALITY (5) (4) (3) 4. 46 (17. 58)*** 0. 20 (7. 79)*** Ã¢â¬â 0. 13 (2. 47)** A0. 11 (A2. 89)*** A0. 23 (A4. 36)*** 0. 05 (0. 61) 0. 22 (2. 52)** 0. 02 (0. 21) 1250 0. 068 14. 19*** 4. 46 (17. 56)*** 0. 9 (7. 62)*** 0. 14 (1. 43) 0. 13 (2. 46)** A0. 11 (A2. 93)*** A0. 23 (A4. 38)*** 0. 05 (0. 65) 0. 22 (2. 52)** 0. 02 (0. 20) 1250 0. 069 12. 68*** 3. 28 (21. 36)*** Ã¢â¬â 0. 024 (0. 37) 0. 016 (0. 48) 0. 009 (0. 40) A0. 062 (A1. 89)* 0. 017 (0. 33) 0. 03 (0. 59) A0. 015 (A0. 24) 1250 0. 002 0. 70 2. 85 (18. 19)*** 0. 14 (8. 78)*** Ã¢â¬â 0. 016 (0. 48) A0. 03 (A1. 28) A0. 06 (A1. 89)* 0. 03 (0. 54) 0. 01 (0. 17) A0. 04 (A0. 64) 1250 0. 056 11. 74*** 2. 86 (18. 19)*** 0. 14 (8. 78)*** A0. 03 (A0. 47) 0. 01 (0. 23) A0. 03 (A1. 27) A0. 05 (A1. 64)* 0. 03 (0. 53) 0. 01 (0. 17) A0. 04 (A0. 64) 1250 0. 056 10. 29*** . 11 (21. 30)*** Ã¢â¬â 0. 11 (1. 82)* A0. 03 (A0. 96) 0. 06 (2. 53)** A0. 03 (A0. 98) 0. 12 (2. 47)** 0. 006 (0. 12) 0. 12 (2. 11)** 1250 0. 014 3. 49** 2. 61 (17. 80)*** 0. 16 (11. 15)*** Ã¢â¬â A0. 04 (A1. 32) 0. 01 (0. 53) A0. 02 (A0. 64) 0. 14 (2. 80)*** A0. 02 (A0. 42) 0. 09 (1. 72)* 1250 0. 101 21. 07*** ?4? The results indicate that the interaction term (i. e. , ABC * WCM) is not statistically signi? cant for any of the plant performance measures. The estimated magnitude of the coe? cient of the interaction term (i. e. , c3) was A0. 04 (p-value = 0. 48), A0. 02 (p-value = 0. 57), and A0. 03 (p-valu e = 0. 9) for the DCOST, DQUALITY, and DTIME models respectively. These results indicate that the interaction model is not supported by empirical evidence based on analyses of the impact of ABC on operational measures of plant performance. On the other hand, the complete mediation model provides a Table 4 Impact of WCM and ABC on plant performance (2) Panel A DCOST (1) Intercept WCM ABC DOWNSIZE SIZE PLANTAGE DISCRETE VOLUME MIX N Adjusted R2 F Value 5. 05 (20. 50)*** Ã¢â¬â 0. 22 (2. 13)** 0. 142 (2. 63)** 0. 06 (A1. 48) A0. 24 (A4. 54)*** 0. 04 (0. 48) 0. 25 (2. 84)*** 0. 05 (0. 53) 1250 0. 027 5. 93*** 14 R. D. Banker et al. Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 Table 5 Results of likelihood ratio tests for non-nested model selection (N = 1250) VuongÃ¢â¬â¢s z-statistic DCOST: ABC vs. WCM DQUALITY: ABC vs. WCM DTIME: ABC vs. WCM 4. 72*** 6. 91*** 7. 45*** p-Value 0. 00 0. 00 0. 00 better explanation of variations in plant performance. Comparison of two no n-nested models We compared the R2 values associated with the ABC and WCM models in Table 4, and observe that WCM provides greater explanatory power of the variance in plant performance measures. In order to discriminate between these two competing speci? cations (i. e. , ABC !Performance versus WCM ! Performance), we evaluate them as non-nested models using VuongÃ¢â¬â¢s (1989) likelihood ratio test for model selection that does not assume under the null that either model is true (Dechow, 1994). It allows us to determine which independent variable (ABC or WCM) has relatively more explanatory power, and represents a more powerful alternative since it can reject one hypothesis in favor of an alternative. We report the results of VuongÃ¢â¬â¢s test on nonnested models in Table 5. We conduct the VuongÃ¢â¬â¢s test for each pair of competing non-nested model speci? cations in Panels A, B, and C, of Table 4.Comparing the models in Eqs. (1) and (2) for the performance variable DCOST, w e ? nd that VuongÃ¢â¬â¢s z-statistic of 4. 72 is signi? cant at p < 0. 01, which indicates that the WCM model in Eq. (2) provides greater explanatory power of the variance in DCOST, compared to the ABC model in Eq. (1). Similarly, VuongÃ¢â¬â¢s z-statistic scores of 6. 91 and 7. 45 are statistically signi? cant (at p < 0. 01) for the DQUALITY and DTIME models, respectively. Our results thus indicate that the direct role of ABC in explaining variations in plant performance is relatively small when compared to that of WCM. 10 Contrary to the ? dings reported A signi? cant z-statistic indicates that ABC is rejected in favor of WCM as a better predictor of variance in plant performance. *** Indicates signi? cance at the 1% level. Table 6 Overall impact of ABC on plant performance (N = 1250) Mediated path ABC ! WCM ! DCOST ABC ! WCM ! DQUALITY ABC ! WCM ! DTIME Estimated path coe? cient 0. 08 (0. 02)** 0. 05 (0. 02)** 0. 06 (0. 01)*** p-Values are shown in parentheses. ***, **, * Indi cates signi? cance at the 1%, 5%, and 10% level, respectively. in Ittner et al. (2002), our ? ndings imply that the complete mediation model provides a superior speci? ation to study the impact of ABC on plant performance. Estimating the overall impact of ABC We next estimate the magnitude of the overall impact of ABC, based on the pathway that links ABC to DPERF through WCM, where DPERF represents the change (D) in COST, QUALITY, and TIME, respectively. We calculate the magnitude of the overall impact of ABC on DPERF as the cross-product of (a) the marginal impact of ABC on WCM, and (b) the marginal impact of WCM on DPERF. That is o? DPERF? o? DPERF? o? WCM? ? A o? ABC? o? WCM? o? ABC? ?5? 10 We also estimated the model, shown in Fig. 1, using structural equation model (SEM) analyses.We then estimated a reverse causal model (i. e. , WCM ! ABC ! Performance) to examine whether ABC is a better predictor of performance, compared to WCM. Our SEM ? t statistics for the reverse model fal l outside the acceptable range for good model ? t. Consistent with the results reported above, and contrary to the ? ndings reported in Ittner et al. (2002), this suggests that WCM has greater explanatory power than ABC to explain variations in plant performance. The path estimates for the plant performance measures are shown in Table 6. Our results indicate that the overall impact of ABC on DCOST is equal to 0. 8 which is statistically signi? cant at p < 0. 05. Similarly, the overall impact of ABC R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 15 on DQUALITY and DTIME are signi? cant, and equal to 0. 05 and 0. 06, respectively. Hence, our results support H3 and indicate that there exists an indirect relationship between ABC and plant performance, where WCM completely mediates the impact of ABC on performance. These results are consistent with our theoretical framework which suggests that, although ABC does not have a direct impact, it has a signi? cant overall impact on performance. 11Discussion We highlight the role played by WCM as a mediator of the impact of ABC on plant performance. We ? nd that ABC has a signi? cant overall impact on reduction in product time to market and unit manufacturing costs, and on improvement in quality. Our results are consistent with prior research which suggests that successful implementation of advanced manufacturing initiatives requires prior adoption of compatible management accounting systems (Milgrom & Roberts, 1995; Shields, 1995; Ittner & Larcker, 1995; Sim & Killough, 1998). Furthermore, our results indicate that WCM practices enable plants to leverage the capabilities o? red by ABC implementation and to signi? cantly improve plant performance. Our study has several limitations. First, the survey instrument measures beliefs about changes in plant performance over a ? ve-year period. These measures need to be validated through archival and ? eld data collection in future research. Seco nd, it is possible that ABC may have been in place beforehand or implemented sometime during the ? ve-year period. The secondary nature of the data did not allow us to separate the implications We also extended our research model to study the indirect impact of ABC on change in plant-level return on assets (ROA), a key ? ancial performance measure. We found that ABC has a signi? cant, positive impact on DROA which is mediated through its impact on WCM. Our ROA results are consistent with our results on the inter-relationships between ABC, WCM, and plant operational performance reported here. 11 of these possibilities. Future studies must be designed to gather more detailed data, about the timeline of ABC implementation to better understand its impact on plant performance especially since users may need training to adapt to new types of costing procedures.ABC implementation was measured as a 0Ã¢â¬â1 variable in our study. It is possible that using a more granular scale to measure the extent of ABC implementation, including the level of ABC integration and the time lag since ABC implementation, may provide greater insights on the relationship between ABC and plant performance. Our focus on plants that employ a minimum of 100 employees limits the generalizability of our results to industries with relatively large or very small manufacturing plants. We also did not account for country or cultural di? rences in manufacturing characteristics since the scope of the survey was limited to US plants. Our ? ndings must also be validated with additional data collected in industry-speci? c settings to examine the impact of industry characteristics and di? erences in manufacturing strategies. Future research may also include evaluation of other contextual factors that are associated with the success of ABC implementation, such as process infrastructure, and the extent of human resource support and outsourcing. Our study enhances the quality of the extant body of knowledg e on ABC e? ectiveness in several ways.First, our survey responses were data provided by plant managers who may represent a more objective and knowledgeable source of plant-wide operations compared to many previous studies, that relied on respondents (such as ABC project managers) with a personal stake in ABC success (Shields, 1995; Swenson, 1995). Second, ABC non-adopters were identi? ed based on the responses provided by plant managers, unlike prior studies where non-adopters were identi? ed based on the lack of public information on ABC implementation (Balakrishnan, Linsmeier, & Venkatachalam, 1996; Gordon & Silvester, 1999).Third, we treated the manufacturing plant (instead of the ? rm) as the unit of analysis, which allowed us to observe the impact of ABC implementation on changes in process-level performance metrics 16 R. D. Banker et al. / Accounting, Organizations and Society 33 (2008) 1Ã¢â¬â19 and avoid the confounding potential when only ? rm-level ? nancial measures ar e used. Acknowledgement Helpful suggestions by the Editor and two anonymous referees are gratefully acknowledged. Conclusion In contrast to prior studies (Ittner et al. 2002) that have typically focused on the direct impact of ABC on plant performance, we study the role of world-class manufacturing practices in mediating the impact of ABC on plant performance. We draw on prior research on the relationship between management accounting systems and business processes to better understand how ABC may support implementation of WCM practices. Analyzing data from a large cross-sectional sample of US manufacturing plants, we ? nd evidence supporting our model emphasizing the role of advanced manufacturing practices in improving plant performance. Our ? ndings emphasize the need for ? ms to strengthen their manufacturing capabilities when making an investment to implement ABC systems, as ABC is unlikely to result in improved manufacturing performance by itself. Our evidence also suggests th at plants can reap signi? cant bene? ts by combining ABC implementation with the deployment of advanced manufacturing practices. Using a conceptual lens that focuses on the indirect impact of ABC, the evidence supports our alternative theoretical perspective to prior research. We conceptualize ABC as only an enabler of world-class manufacturing practices, which in turn is associated with improvements in plant performance.Our Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëcomplete mediationÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ model stands in contrast with earlier models proposed by Ittner et al. (2002) who focus primarily on the direct impact of ABC on plant performance. The results indicate that our alternative conceptualization is superior in terms of its ability to explain variations in plant performance based on cross-sectional data of a large sample of plants that have implemented ABC. Furthermore, our proposed model may provide an avenue for future researchers using di? erent methodologies to explain di? erences in performance im provements following ABC implementations.It may also explain the weak or ambiguous results in prior research on ABC impact because ABC adoption may not be a su? cient statistic for WCM. Appendix: Survey questions I. Plant characteristics Variable SIZE Question How many employees are at this plant location? 1 = Less than 100; 2 = 100Ã¢â¬â249; 3 = 250Ã¢â¬â499; 4 = 500Ã¢â¬â999; 5 = >1000 employees PLANTAGE How many years has it been since plant start-up? 1 = Less than 5 years; 2 = 5Ã¢â¬â10 years; 3 = 11Ã¢â¬â20 years; 4 = >20 years MIX, VOLUME12 How would you describe the primary product mix at this plant? = High volume, high mix; 2 = High volume, low mix 3 = Low volume, high mix; 4 = Low volume, low mix What is the nature of manufacturing operations for primary products at this plant? 1 = Discrete; 0 = Otherwise (hybrid or process) What is the extent of downsizing at the plant in the past ? ve years? 1 = no change, 2 = extent of downsizing increased 1Ã¢â¬â10%, 3 = inc reased 11Ã¢â¬â20%, 4 = increased 21Ã¢â¬â50%, 5 = increased 51Ã¢â¬â75%, and 6 = increased >75% DISCRETE DOWNSIZE For our analysis, we split the data into two variables such that MIX = 1 if high mix; 0 = otherwise, and VOLUME = 1 if high volume; 0 = otherwise
Monday, July 29, 2019
Research Paper 2 - Essay Example As a result, states and society at large watched helplessly by for some time as the institutions of marriage and family fall apart. Lately, when the social and economic costs sustained from scuttled marriages and broken families began to spread and reach alarming proportions, state authorities in many places have started to take a hand in the problem. This paper discussed the ill effects of the breakdown of marriage and family and the prevention-intervention measures that are increasingly adopted to address the problem. It highlighted the negative influences of marital distress, cohabitation and divorce on people's productivity, physical and mental health as well as on the quality and character of children produced from such a troubled family environment. Finally, the paper examined the effectiveness of measures designed to strengthen the institution of marriage as catalyst for social stability. When a man and woman exchange marriage vows, they enter into a legal agreement to start a new family unit and care for each other and for any children that they might have. Since marriage is a legal instrument, it is the duty of the state to ensure that the contracting parties in marriage adhere to these provisions. Until recently, however, intervention in marriage and family was not part of public policy (Benson, 2005). ... Since marriage is a legal instrument, it is the duty of the state to ensure that the contracting parties in marriage adhere to these provisions. Until recently, however, intervention in marriage and family was not part of public policy (Benson, 2005). This thinking started to change as research after research unmistakably showed that the mounting cases of physical and mental illnesses and the dwindling levels of productivity in the workplace (Stanley, 2001) are attributable to failed marriages. Illnesses that require medical care create a drain on public resources while low productivity hampers the march to economic growth. These are as much a concern of the state as the Christian churches, which represent the only entity that used to undertake efforts at instructing couples on the sanctity of marriage and the adverse effects of marital distress. Realization that the state presence is needed in the deterioration of marriage gave further impetus to activities designed to achieve bette r understanding of the dynamics of the modern-day marriage and family with an eye on preventing marital distress and divorce. 2. Literature Review 2.a. Marriage & Family Breakdown When the National Council on Family Relations in the US conducted its annual meeting in 2003, the theme was: "What is the Future of Marriage" This captured the essence of the problem on the changes that erode the value of marriage and family. Marriage as a social institution has vastly deteriorated because of such factors as the increased opportunities for sexual relationships outside marriage, greater tolerance of single parenthood, declining marital fertility, improved job opportunities for women and
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Unification of Germany and Italy in the 19th century - Assignment Example During the year 1848 Europe was taken over by the democratic revolution and the German representatives in the unification were King Wilhem I (King of Prussian), who wanted to increase the strength of the army and elect a new Prime Minister. The second leader was Otto von Bismarck who was the Prime Minister, who had no room of idealism in his regime and was the leader of realism. During the year 1866 and 1877 there was a seven week war which provoked the Austria to call a war on Prussia, in which Prussia were successful and they took control over the northern Germany, which was followed by the Franco-Prussian War in which the Prussian army took over the northern France and took 80,000 French Prisoners. This war the final stages into the unification of the Germany and the southern region on accepted the Prussian as the leaders. There were many reasons that lead to World War I, few of the reasons were long pending and few of other arose near the war that made the decision more affirmati ve. Few of the long reason that forced the war was the Rise of Militarism, this was in result of the increase of use of power by the European in the late 18th Century. The Europe started to believe that the military powers were one of the most feasible and desirable reasons to resolve the increasing hostile and fragile political conditions in the world. Another long term reason that caused the World War I was The Arms Race, the excess use of military caused imbalance in the powers; this led to the innovation of technology with respect.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Analysis of Economic Articles - Essay Example 2. If chemical companies set their plants in the U.S., the more than production and marketing costs could be minimized, especially if the target market is within the U.S. or nearby countries. In so doing, there is a possibility that trade relationships between the U.S. and EU with regards to shale gas or other alternative energy sources would be minimized. Looking at this perspective, it would be more beneficial to the U.S. since shale prices would be significantly minimized; while this would be detrimental to the EU for diminishing trade and export to US markets. 3. The boom of production of natural gas in the US is seen to negatively impact EU, especially those countries identified to previous export shale gas to the US market. With more chemical companies opting to explore the potentials in the US, the EU economy could be foreseen to worsen due to the negative impact of lesser exports and potential reliance or dependence on the Russians as a supplier of natural gas (Torello). 1. The current status of the U.S. economy significantly affects global trade in terms of contributing to increases in exports or imports, as continually affected by external forces. As such, it was evident in the article that the U.S. economy is not the contributory steering force that shapes the global economy, but rather, economic developments in both China and South Korea could be the dominant influencing factor. 2. The role of the Federal Bank in the U.S. in enhancing economic growth and allowing country developments remains paramount through the provision of financial support that is instrumental for global trade.Ã
Friday, July 26, 2019
Famous African American of the 20th Century - Research Paper Example In 1964, he became the youngest person who was given the Nobel Peace Prize for his endless efforts to stop racial discrimination and racial segregation. Slavery exists in the world since centuries. It started in America in 1600s with the African Slave Trade when the Africans were transported from the west coast of Africa to the Americas and were sold to slave traders. These slave traders kept them in horrible conditions and were made to do labor intensive work on coffee, tobacco, tea, sugar plantations. They were beaten, lashed, starved and deprived with even basic necessities of life such as food and shelter. The Bible also permitted slavery as well as the early laws of Babylon which stated that a man can own another man like he owns an animal. In other parts of the world the slaves could belong to any race. However, in America the slaves were blacks. The divide between the blacks and white continued to mature and lead to severe riots, protests, and eventually a civil war. Martin Lu ther King rose in 1955 when he was appointed as minister in Montgomery. His tough believes in achieving civil rights and non violence movements also established him as an opponent to the American participation in the war in Vietnam. He recognized that the finest approach to unshackle African American and to give them their rights could be achieved through non violent protests and demonstrations. Several of his beautiful quotations are examples of his support for non violent protests; Ã¢â¬Å"At the center of non-violence stands the principle of love.Ã¢â¬ He believed that any kind of violent act from the civil rights workers will show the way to the segregationists for opposing actions which will cause grievance and death for his supporters. Through non violent protests his movement gained recognition and many associates and opened up the way for the passing of Civil Rights Bill in 1964-1965. Moreover, King was determined to spread his message to everyone and gain support from all corners regardless of class and race differences. He wanted the white moderate to awake from their deep sleep of negligence of moral and political values. Also he wanted them to appreciate the fact that desegregation will lead to elimination of social and legal prohibitions. He was also dismayed by the indifferent attitude of the moral people towards this discrimination, because of which people with sick intentions were making progress. His Ã¢â¬Å"Letter from the Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ is an essay which clarifies and gives details of the motives behind the non violent civil disobedience movement and also explains the methods used for this mass movement. King was a man who contributed immensely towards shaping and influencing the lives of Americans during the 1950s and 1960s. In this period of time, Americans did not have the courage to stand up for their rights, project their demands and views and accepted whatever was given to them. Martin Luther King was the beam of light that sho wed them the path to freedom and individuality. For example in 1955 after the Montgomery civil rights movement had started an activist Rosa Parks refused to abide by the law for segregation in public buses. A bus boycott was initiated and
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Marketing Plan on coco pops kellogs in Australia - Research Proposal Example The author of the study has not only developed a marketing plan to cater to the needs and requirements of the customers but also will help the company to maintain its profitability. Finally, the study will conclude with the evaluation of its existing marketing plan. The author of the study has focused on developing a marketing plan for KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s which not only focuses on providing healthy food to customers but also lay emphasis on the environment. Table of Contents Table of Contents 3 Situational Analysis 4 Competitor Analysis 6 Customer Analysis 6 Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threats Analysis 7 Marketing Objectives 9 Marketing Mix: KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s 7P 10 Budget 12 Implementation of Milestones 15 Evaluation 16 Conclusion 17 Introduction: KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s Marketing Plan KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s is a multinational food corporation, which specializes in manufacturing cereal and other convenience food like crackers, pastries, toaster, cereal bars, waffles and other vegetarian foods ( KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2013g). The brand includes regular cornflakes, frosted flakes, Special K, Rice Krispies, Coco Pops, Pringles, Nutri Grain and Pop ( KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2013h). ... The main objective of the study would be to develop a marketing plan for KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s, in order to penetrate in Australian markets for providing children and adults a healthy meal without compromising the nutritional benefits. Finally, the study will deal with all the components of the marketing plan required for introducing a cereal into the market. The chosen market for the study is Australia because of its alarming rate of obesity and other diseases, which has become a growing concern for the Australian government. Situational Analysis The situational analysis would be conducted through PESTLE analysis, which is instrumental for understanding the external factors that have the potentiality of affecting KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s. Political The corporate tax rate in Australia is 30 percent which is higher than most of the developed countries. The high tax rate implemented by the government is to recover from the present economic slowdown. The existing cereal industries in Australia are s truggling to maintain its profitability. Economic: Although, there is an economic slowdown in Australia which has affected most of the industries to a large extent, the cereal industries have been performing quite well. Social: The Australian people are very health conscious and prefer cereal over other breakfast food because of its nutritional content and healthy ingredients. The social life of the Australian common people is very active and they prefer breakfast food like cereals which provides zeal and healthiness. Technological: Technology plays an important role in the cereal industry because apart from the manufacturing of cereal the packaging process is totally dependent on technology. Packaging process needs to be effective to ensure the freshness of the product and retain
What do you understand by globalisation Discuss who- if anybody, is benefiting from different aspects - Essay Example The policy changes have opened up borders domestically and internationally hence facilitating the movements of goods and services and causing massive migration across the globe (Johnson, 2002, 428). Many nations have adopted free-market economies thus expanding investment and trading opportunities, as well as expansion of production potential. The advancement in technology is the main driver of globalization and is making people develop the capacity for making informed decisions (Intriligator, 2003, p. 3). The use of information technology and the use of internet have increased the interactions of people through use of mobile phones and the use of social media such as facebook, twitter, YouTube and MySpace among others. The interactions of people have resulted to peace and understanding across the globe. The interaction of people from different cultural backgrounds has improved the way people respond to various issues (Thompson, 2007, p. 1). Different people have enriched their culture by copying positive aspects of the other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s culture thus improving their living standards. For example, the Western culture has imposed significant changes in the cultures of developing nations in a positive way. The religion of the Western communities has been accepted in the developing countries (Dator, 2006, p. 23). The building styles of the Western countries have been greatly appreciated in other communities and so on. The governments from different nations have benefitted from globalisation because, through the movement of goods and people across nations, the governments are able to increase revenue. Globalisation has resulted to exports and imports of products across the globe (Intriligator, 2003, p. 7). The governments levy custom duties on imports thus increasing the nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ income. The world nations are able to increase their GDP because they have the opportunity to produce products for sale in other
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Desperately Seeking susan by Susan Seidelman - Movie Review Example The film, Ã¢â¬Å"Desperately Seeking SusanÃ¢â¬ might captivate many socio-cultural themes, but at the outset it is a full length comedy drama set to entertain audiences watching the film. The film does not contain any serious material apparently then a general inquisition occurs as to what actually is captivated within the short running span of 104 minutes drama that has allured, enchanted and glued the audiences to their seats while watching the film. The romance of the film is definitely inherent within its fanciful plot, extreme comedic actions of the characters, costumes and settings. However, no one can undermine the presence of the two powerful divas on the screen chasing and running after each other and last but not the least chasing madly behind recovering their pair of Egyptian ear ring which they think has been stolen. Director Susan Seidelman employs many devices that were improvised from the Elizabethan comedies in a Shakespearean hue, the devices of mistaken identity, amnesia and farce are employed to build the plot of the comedy Ã¢â¬Å"Desperately Seeking SusanÃ¢â¬ which make the film totally laughter generating. It has been truly observed and remarked that once you get to watch the film, Ã¢â¬Å"Desperately Seeking SusanÃ¢â¬ an individual has no option but to unleash his/her intellectual faculty, stop exercising their grey matters and gobble the jewellery clad divas Rosanna Arquette and Madonna. The film stars Robert Joy, Laurie Metcalf and Aidan Quinn as well. As regards to the plot of the film, it happens to be the weakest part. A bored housewife played by Rosanna sees the classified ad where she views that a place and time has been sought by Susan who wants to fix a rendezvous with a person who is interested to meet her. Getting highly attracted by the ad, Rosanna fixes a meeting with Susan played by Madonna and gets so seriously involved into this meeting and the act of seeking people by Susan that she becomes Susan for a while. The plot of the film is genuinely unpredictable and its ending is the most unprecedented one. Thus, such kind of unprecedented occurrence creates a sense of perplexity amid the viewing audience which in turn can create disengagement. However, there are much more strong appeals and facets of the film which make it worth watching. The film captivates the audience with varied enchanting scenarios presented within the plot which act as a glue for the audience. The in and around of New York city as captivated by the camera of Seidelman is the remarkable thing to watch in the film. The film has moments and those moments are created by a volley of good actors like Aidan Quinn and Robert Joy. Thus, there is no wonder that the appeal of the two ladies Rosanna and Madonna, their exuberant and loud costumes along with voluptuous presence make the film more alluring. A true mark of entertaining cinema is imbibed within the screenplay of Ã¢â¬Å"Desperately Seeking SusanÃ¢â¬ manifested by the screenplay of Leora Barish. When I look towards the phenomena involving the true success of the film, Ã¢â¬Å"Desperately Seeking SusanÃ¢â¬ , it really feels great to acknowledge the use of all the actors even the supporting actors within the film so elaborately that it provides the film a different dimension altogether. The small roles
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Regional Studies - Essay Example In 1946, Sony has taken location and Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka founded. There is no question that the founders of sophisticated electronics rather quickly (Wataru Fogel 2010). This is because the two were the founders of abilities and capabilities to the Japanese electronics commerce of lightweight at the top. On an edge note, we should notify you that China is in electrical devices goods are evolving better and more high-tech, are far along with enterprise buying into in some other nations, encompassing Japan. We have to notify you much achievement in the buyer electronics commerce in Japan because of persons who easily could not turn off their electrical devices. The reality is that the buyer electronics commerce in the United States, mostly dry due to the achievement of Japan's buyer electronics in Japan. In the late 1880s was one TV output, which stayed in the U.S. because Japanese businesses have bought into in others. Did you understand that Japan, which first hue TV? In 198 0, Japan has evolved the electronics for example camcorders, VCRs, CD. Today, we all understand how well liked the compact computer disc contestant in the world. If you stroll in public locations, then you can anticipate glimpsing numerous distinct kinds of electrical devices gear used. ... Most Japanese electronics manufacturers took benefit of the trade items enterprise because the market is saturated with competition (Anderson 2002). Over the last 20 years, electronics manufacturers Korean and Taiwanese gnawed its way into buyer electronics market worldwide and Chinese manufacturers have obtained substantial support throughout the last decade. Today, the pie of the Japanese electronics constructing market is not large-scale sufficient to share with all the Japanese manufacturers, if each of them desire to stay in the market for buyer items cheap. There are easily too numerous Japanese electronics manufacturers, and they should change the main heading of the business to endure the increasing affray on the market. Unfortunately, numerous Japanese electrical devices businesses are too large-scale to change main heading rapidly, and latest alterations broadcast, numerous of these businesses manage not appear very smart. Several business broadcasts and alterations in the schemes of foremost Japanese manufacturers have occurred in latest months. Matsushita Electric Industry has traded its stake in JVC set (one of the manufacturers of buyer electronics contestant in the world of audio-visual equipment) because of reduced productivity. JVC will now work with the Kenwood (another premier Japanese constructor of audio equipment) to endure in this industry. In supplement, Sanyo endured important deficiency in latest years, most business bosses lately resigned. Sony's long-run international buyer electronics monster, determined to close its constructing of semiconductors and sales procedures of Toshiba. Meanwhile, latest, released last week engaged Sharp, the premier constructor of LCD
Monday, July 22, 2019
Our Countrys Good, Acting Advice For Act Essay The scene starts off with just Ralph. I think I would tell the actor to look studious and intellectual, as Ralph would be making every effort to make the play to a very high standard so he can impress Captain Phillip in the hope of getting the promotion he has desired for some time. The mood should then change as soon as Shitty Meg enters on stage. She should walk on with a tarty stride. She is old and thoroughly unattractive but she makes an over enthused effort to look glamorous and highly sexual. She should move toward Ralph in a very intimidating manor. Her sexual innuendoes should be delivered with a knowledgably bawdy tone and charisma, I can play Lieutenant, I can play with any part you like. When trying to convince Ralph into giving her a part in his play, You dont want a young woman peculiar, Lieutenant, they dont know nothing, I think she should grab Ralphs leg as soon as she says the line; Shut your eyes and Ill play you as tight as a virgin. Ralph should seem very intimidated and should jump up and back away from her in disgust. Meg should continue like this until Ralph has enough and shouts Long! . At this point Meg should be slightly scared of Ralphs anger but she keeps face by accusing Ralph of being a homosexual, We thought you was a madge cull, she should say her lines in a patronising matter-of-fact way to try and lower Ralphs high persona of himself. The comic mood should continue when Sideway comes on the stage. He should be lively and full of character as he is your typical London geezer. He delivers his first few lines with an almost fake admiration for Ralph; I am calling you Mr Clarke as one calls Mr Garick Mr Garick. Sideway should have a very in-your-face attitude to Ralph. Ralph should be very intimidated and suspicious but remain on the spot in a very militaristic manner to give the impress that he is not phased by Sideways very forward and friendly approach. Sideway should be walking around Ralph the whole time to try and show that he is nimble and enthusiastic; top of my profession, Mr Clarke. As Sideway delivers his lines, in a very reflective thoughtful manner, Ralph should gradually ease out of his rigid posture and himself seem to be thinking of the wonderful London which Sideway speaks of; London bridge at dawn. Then when delivering the line plucking up courage, I pluck her, he should remove a handkerchief out from Ralphs back pocket, unknown to the audience or Ralph himself. Then when saying the handkerchiefs he should reveal the handkerchief in a very theatrical way so it is made clear to both the audience and Ralph that Sideway had stolen his handkerchief. Ralph should seem surprised but should then give the impression that he is still very important and pretending almost that nothing had happened. As soon as Dabby and Mary enter, we should realise how different the two characters are. Dabby should be confident and pushy whereas Mary should be quiet and highly reserved. Ralph should be infatuated with Mary as soon as he lays eyes on her. Although he cant take his eyes off her I dont think that Mary is either confident or keen enough yet to achieve eye contact with him. Dabby should push Mary forward quite forcefully after saying her line; You asked to see Mary Brenham, Lieutenant. Here she is. Mary is still very nervous and still doesnt show any sort of interest in Ralph whatsoever. He intimidates her because he is one of the officers and she is also scared because she is about to audition for a play. Ralph should seem keen to want to talk to Mary rather than Dabby, purely because he is smitten with her Do you know what a play is? . Dabby to him is just an annoyance Ive seen lots of plays, Lieutenant, so has Mary. Mary must still remain quiet and nervous (this shown in the stage directions when it says that should say some of her lines inaudibly. Although Dabby is very keen to get Mary her part in the play because she feels that Ralph would be a good person for Mary to be with and sleep with on the ship Mary wants to be in your play, Lieutenant but should be very obvious about the fact that she wants in the play as well and so do I. Ralph wants to make sure he gives Mary the impression that he wants her to be in the play by telling her all of the good things that other people have said about her; The Reverend Johnson told me you could read and write, Brenham. The first time that Ralphs and Marys meet should be when they both start reading the play to each other, whilst there is life there is hope. Every time the two look each other in the eyes when they are reading the play the looks should be held and prolonged to show an obvious attraction from both of them. Ralph for the first time in this scene is above the convicts and seems to have intellectual superiority over the two of them. The actor should say this lines in quite a patronising way not because he wants the convicts to know their place but because that is how he treats everyone This is a comedy, they dont really mean it. Mary should seem very innocent and like a little girl. Especially when Ralph tries to explain the plot of the story which is rather bizarre she falls in love with Silvia. In the stage directions it actually says Mary begins to giggle but tries to hold it back. The mood then changes drastically as soon as Liz enters. Her stride should show that she is aggressive and very confident. Mary should very subtly sneak away and not say anything. Dabby and Liz should give each other evil glares. It says in the stage directions about the characters; each holding her ground, each ready to pounce. Ralph should seem unphased purely because he knows nothing of the hostility between the two characters; Dabby: You cant have her in the play, Lieutenant. Ralph: Why not? Lizs anger just mounts until the point at which she nearly cracks, the stage directions say that she looks briefly at Dabby, as if to strike, then changes her mind. The actress playing Liz should be forward and confident and intimidated by nothing she snatches the book from Ralph and strides off.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Googles Performance Management System Contents (Jump to) 1. INTRODUCTION 2. FORMULATION OF HR STRATEGY 3. IMPLEMENTATION OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT: 4. EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT REFERENCES: 1. INTRODUCTION The practice of human resource management is concerned with all aspects of how people are employed and managed in organizations. The main principle of human resource management is to make sure that the organization is able to attain success through people. HRM aims to increase organizational efficiency and ability and the capacity of an organization to achieve its goals by making the best use of the resources available to it. Human resource management mainly deals with organizational behavior, organization design and development, people resourcing, performance management, learning and development, rewarding people and employee relations. In the organizational context, performance is usually defined as the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the goals of the organization. Performance management is a regular process to improve organizational performance by improving the performance of individual persons and teams. The performance management strategy is practical to be the procedure of providing the study about the performance of the employee and is consider being the important tool in the decisions taken by the human resource department. Performance management is defined as Performance management is a strategic and integrated approach to delivering sustained success to organizations by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors (Armstrong and Baron, 2004). Performance management is the method of formulating, implementing and evaluating the work performance of employees, so that the organization will achieve their goals and objectives. Successful performance management is designed to develop performance, recognize performance requirements, and provide feedback related to those requirements and help with career development. The overall aim of performance management is to establish a high performance culture in which individuals and teams take responsibility for the continuous improvement of business processes and for their own skills and contributions within a framework provided by effective leadership (Armstrong, 2006). The objectives of performance management are (Hawkes, 1998): To sustain employees to find knowledge and skills to do their job well, To encourage in the ability of improved standards of work performance of an employee. For employees to work towards definite goals. For employees to get regular feedback on performance and For employees to achieve personal growth through acquiring significant knowledge and skills and attitudes. In todays business environment, the companys bottom line is to make more profits in long term by attracting, retaining and motivating top talent people for utmost performance. The approaches of companies for attaining profits are by offering the best rewards in the industry. The company which is in that list is Google Inc. Google early years, the search engine attracted an ever growing number of trusty users, which finally lead to an initial public offering valuing Google at US$ 23 billion. After the IPO, Google under the professional leadership of CEO Eric Schmidt, has grown greatly and continuous to innovate and expand into a numberless of industries, such as communication and web applications etc. The modern environment in which Google operate is very competitive. According to Google employees and their technical knowledge is companys greatest advantage (NYU IBA, 2008). This case study will focus on performance management tool of reward and feedback system of Google. Concentrating on how reward system is influencing the employee performance? And what are the methods used to evaluate the feedback performance management? 2. FORMULATION OF HR STRATEGY 2.1 Process of Performance Management: Performance planning and agreements: This process helps people to get into action so they can achieve planned and agreed results. This process briefly focuses on the elements like what has to be done and how it should be done and what is to be achieved. And this process is equally concentrated on developing people; helping them to learn and giving them the support they need to do well. The managers and the individuals carry out performance and development plan jointly. These planning should lead to an agreement on what needs to be done by two parties. This process is concentrating on Role profiles Objective settings Measuring performance and assessment Performance planning Development planning Role profiles This section describe the function in terms of the key result areas; define what the role possessor desires to know and be able to do and how they are likely to behave in terms of behavioral competencies and maintenance the organizations core values. This process will concentrate on rising the role profiles, defining the core result areas, defining the technical competencies, defining the behavioral competencies, and core values. Objective Setting This process describes the organizational goals or objectives to achieve over a period of time by the departments and the individuals. This will give ongoing role or the work objectives, targets, tasks, behavioral expectations, values, performance improvement, learning, and integrating objectives to manager and the individuals. As per (Armstrong, 2006) most of the organizations follow SMART mnemonic to summarize the characteristics of good objectives. S (Specific) Clear, understandable and challenging. M (Measurable) quality, quantity, money and time. A (Achievable) challenging but in the reach of a experienced and committed person. R (Relevant) related to the objectives of the organization so that the goal of the employees is associated to corporate goals. T (Time framed) objective is to be completed within a timescale. Measuring performance and assessment This process is a significant model in performance management. It is the main finding for providing and generating feedback, it identify where things are going well and where things are not going well, so that necessary action to be taken. The criteria for measuring the performance should be (Armstrong, 2006) linked to the strategic goals Focusing on inputs, outputs and outcomes, and behaviors. Point out the data or evidence that will be available as the source for measurement. Be as specific as possible in accordance with the purpose of the measurement and the accessibility of data. Give a sound basis for advice and action. Be comprehensive, covering all the main aspects of performance. The CIPD surveys of performance management in 2004 discovered that, in order of significance, the following performance measures were used by the respondents (Armstrong, 2006). Attainment of objectives Capability Quality Contribution to team Customer care Working relationships Output Flexibility Skills/learning targets Aligning personal objectives with organizational goals Business awareness Financial awareness Performance planning The performance planning is part of the performance management chain, which involves contract between the manager and the person on what presently needs to do to achieve objectives, move up standards, improve performance and develop the required competencies. It also establishes priorities the key aspects of the job to which attention have to be given. The aim is to make sure that the meaning of the purpose, performance standards and competencies as they apply to everyday work is understood. Agreement is also reached at this phase on how performance will be measured and the proof that will be used to begin levels of competence. It is important that these procedures and evidence requirements should be known and fully approved now because they will be used by persons and managers to check and demonstrate achievements (Armstrong, 2009). Personal development planning Personal development plans provide a learning action plan for which employees are responsible with the support of their managers and the organization. It may contain official training but, more importantly, it will include a wider set of learning and development actions such as self managed learning, training, mentoring, project work, job improvement and job enrichment. It is likely to focus on development in the existing job, and to improve the capability to make it well and to enable individuals to take on bigger responsibilities, extending their ability to accept a broader role. This plan therefore contributes to the success of a policy of continuous development that is predicated on the belief that everyone is able of learning more and doing better in their jobs. The plan will also give to enhancing the likely of persons to carry out higher level jobs (Armstrong, 2009). Managing performance throughout the year: Managing performance is that it is a continuous process that reflects normal good management practices of setting direction, monitoring and measuring performance and taking action accordingly. Performance management should not be imposed on managers as something special they have to do. It should instead be treated as a natural function that all good managers carry out. This approach contracts with that used in conventional performance appraisal systems, which were usually built around an annual event, the formal review, which tended to do well on the past. This was carried out at the behest of the personnel department. Managers proceeded to manage without any further references to the outcome of the review and the appraisal form was buried in the personnel record system (Armstrong, 2009). Performance review and assessment: Performance management is a permanent process it is compulsory to have an official review once or twice a year. This will give an idea on the key performance and development issues. There are mainly five performance management elements for review meetings; they are agreement, feedback, measurement, positive reinforcement and dialogue. These elements will leads to the end of the performance management cycle by informing performance and development agreements (Armstrong, 2009). The criteria for the performance review are Achievements with respect to objectives The level of skills and knowledge possessed and applied (Technical competencies) Performance is getting effected in job by the behavior (Competencies) Day-to-day effectiveness 2.2 Learning and Development: Employee development is the main method followed by most of the organizations to develop organization performance, which in turn requires a perceptive of the processes and techniques of organization, team and individual learning. Performance reviews can be regarded as learning events, in which employees can be encouraged to think about how and in which ways they want to develop. Development programs are reflecting the needs of sequence plans and looking for to promote leadership skills (CIPD, 2010). In a successful organization, employee developmental needs are addressed. Developing in this case means increasing the ability to make through giving training, develop new skills or by giving more responsibilities. Introducing the processes of performance management provides an outstanding opportunity to identify developmental needs. During the planning and monitoring of work, deficiencies in performance become clear and can be addressed. Areas for improving good performance also show up and action can be taken to help successful employees progress even better (OPM, 2010). 2.3 360 Degree feedback: 360 Degree feedback recognizes the difficulty of management and the value of input from a range of sources. The feedback is frequently unspecified and may be presented to the employee to the manager or to both employee and manager. Some organizations do not arrange for feedback to be mysterious. Whether or not feedback is anonymous depends on the organizations culture (Armstrong, 2009). The main advantages of having feedback are Individuals get a broader viewpoint of how they seem by others. It gives people a broad view of their performance Increased awareness by senior management. The main disadvantages of having feedback are Employees or managers do not always give honest feedback People may feel stress in receiving or providing feedback Too much official procedure (bureaucracy) In organizations they do not have a practice of open feedback; it is likely that 360 Degree feedback will be seen with greater levels of distrust. 2.4 Reward: Reward management is concerned with the formulation and implementation of strategies and policies in order to reward people fairly, equally and consistently in agreement with their value to the organization (Armstrong, 2009). The aims of reward management are Reward people as per the organization want to pay for. Reward people for the value they creating. Build up a performance culture Motivate people and obtain their commitment. Help to attract and keep the high quality people the organization desires. Operate fairly Operate transparently 2.5 Rating performance: Rating scales can be defined alphabetically, or numerically. Initials are sometimes used in an attempt to disguise the hierarchical nature of the scale. The alphabetical or numerical points scale points may be described adjectivally, for example, a= excellent, b= good, c= satisfactory and d= dissatisfactory. 2.6 Advantages and concerns of performance management: The advantages of performance management are Performance management focuses on results instead of behaviors and activities. Aligns organization activities, and processes to the goals of the organization. Explains long term views of the organization Provides specificity in commitments and resources Provides specificity for comparisons, directions and planning. The concerns expressed about performance management are that it seems extraordinarily difficult and often unreliable to measure phenomena as complex as performance. People point out that todays organizations are rapidly changing, thus results and measures quickly became obsolete. They add that translating human desires and interactions to measurements is impersonal even heavy handed. 2.7 Role of line managers and HR managers in performance management: Human Resource division at any organization has unique challenges, it has to make sure that the employees are motivated and dedicated to the organization with complete reliability and honesty. However, at the same time, the Human resource division has to make sure that the market dynamics are not badly affected by the total volumes of investment involved in the process. And also line managers are crucial to the success of performance management. But there can be problems with their commitment and skills and it is necessary to involve them in developing the process, provide training and guidance, gain top management support, keep the process simple, emphasize that performance reviews provide for quality time with their staff and need not be stressful if conducted properly. The main objective to the success at Google Inc. is simple work procedure apart from the incredible perks and compensations. There are a few fundamental rewards existing at Google like, there is no real hierarchical structure in the company, and it works in small groups it will give an opportunity to maximize the performance and this follows a flat structure. The ideas getting at the work place which are shared within the groups. Even though they work in smaller groups, they will have a project manager to look over the development of the committees. The company treats the small groups and teams as individual start-ups (NYU IBA, 2008). 3. IMPLEMENTATION OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT: 3.1 Methods of performance management: There are number of methods we can use for managing performance. Below table shows some information on a number of official methods of performance management that may be used (Department of Economic Development, Tourism and the arts, 2010). Process What is this method? Where is this method used? 360 Degree appraisal This method gives a valuable approaching into how the persons work and behavior. This method is often used for managers and supervisors. While the values of this method are very useful, it can be administratively good method for small businesses. This method is used when funding and time is available. Where it is important to get quite a few perspectives on a persons performance, for example in the customer service roles or where the person is working across teams. Self assessment Just the name suggests, the individual assesses their own performance to set criteria. This is a good method for identifying where the businesses opinion of performance and the individuals opinions are different. Where there is an interview based performance management process Competency based assessments In this method they will access skills and capabilities. Ability can be harder to define in jobs with a high level of vagueness or where outcomes are not clearly express, such as managing relationships with staff. Where there are task oriented jobs with little or no ambiguity or decision making responsibility. Management by objectives A collaborative method, the MBO defines goals and future targets by consultation. Future tasks, behavior and productivity, for example, are discussed and a SMART plan is created so that the manager and staff member are aware of what needs to be achieved, to what standard and by when. Where the business uses formal processes to manage performance and where outcomes can be measured accurately. Google feedback program Google implements formal and informal feedback system to evaluate their employees. At Google, an employees manager report and individual reports are considered for the evaluation process. Its formal system of evaluation uses 360 Degrees review method. The employee will also selects three or more officials to review his performance. These reviews are made twice a year and this will reflect on the performance review with an employees bonus. Anyways, there is nothing surprise because regular checking of the performance is a form of informal feedback system and they are more comprehensive than a formal review which is performed twice a year (NYU IBA, 2008). Google reward program Google reward system extensively makes use of these formal and informal feedbacks, where the bonuses are based on the combined performance of the corporate, team and an individual. It got a complex structure of promotions and stock options within the organization. In addition, there is a strong clan society within the organization and comparatively flat organizational structure, making the company more a fusion of the two reward system. One of the Googles most exhilarating employee rewards is its capability to offer stock options. Stock options are typically to exercising the option and purchasing stock at a given date or not, however Google has decided to take a more innovative approach to its reward. Transferable stock options are a compensation program that Google developed for the purpose of allowing employees to trade their options off to a bidder. In this way, Google not only increases the value of every stock option given to its employees but also enhance its options valuations (NYU IBA, 2008). 4. EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Google feedback program By considering all the above statements, we can say that Google has room to improve upon its feedback system in terms of making it more stabilized and prearranged. In addition, one-on-one interaction should be encourages as much as possible. The informal feedback should come in some sort of format that helps employees more than hurts them, and gives beneficial analysis rather than negative and strange feedback (NYU IBA, 2008). Google reward program What is Googles incentive in giving out these perks and rewards?. Well it is becoming increasingly important to attract and keep top talent in an increasingly competitive job market. With competition from technology giants like Microsoft and Yahoo! Google is offering US$2000 to the current employees, if they refer a friend to work at Google. At the same time these perks and rewards help differentiate Google from its competitors that have expanded their own benefits program in recent years. Despite the seemingly phenomenal environment at Google, we believe the company should consider the system of perks to ensure a stable employee base in the future. In the future, an overemphasis on perks may not build sufficient employee commitment, especially if competitors can imitate Googles programs. Thus, it is better Google slowly merge the perks with the rewards system. Increasing employee rewards, rather than merely offering interesting perks will in the long run help increase employee productivity and loyalty (NYU IBA, 2008). REFERENCES: Armstrong, M. and Baron, A. (2004). Managing performance: performance management in action. London: Chartered Institute of Personal and Development. Armstrong, M. (2006). Performance Management: Key Strategies and Practical Guidelines. 3rd Ed. London: Chartered Institute of Personal and Development.