Friday, December 27, 2019
EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ Medea is considered, according to AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Poetics, a tragedy. The play centers on Medea, an outsider and wife to Jason, who seeks to punish Jason for taking another wife. The play is considered a tragedy because it contains the three unities as well as the six elements of drama mentioned by Aristotle. Despite the fact that the does the play fits the criteria of what Aristotle considers tragedy, however, Medea is actually not a tragedy but tells the story about a successful revenge. In the Poetics, Aristotle has established a criteria consisting of four requirements that character must have to be considered the tragic hero. Medea, however, is not a tragic character because she does not possess two of the four requirements: goodness and correctness. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s first requirement of goodness states: The persons wit[ have character ifin the way previousty stated their speech or their action reveals the moraI quality of some choice, and good character i f a good choice (Aristotle 130). Having a Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ character will allow provoke pity and fear in a tragedy. Medea however does not possess the Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ quality. She does not express it through the course of the play in her actions. In the opening of the play, the nurse makes it known that she wished that Ã¢â¬Å"the Argo never had set sail (1) which indicates the idea that the only time Medea was possibly good is before Jason set sail Ã¢â¬Å"to seek the golden pelt for PeliasÃ¢â¬ (6-7). Medea fell in love with him and because of itShow MoreRelatedThe Tragedy Of Medea By Euripides1968 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe characters in Medea by Euripides have no free will; the gods control all. Consequently, the concept, Ã¢â¬Å"Divine Double Bind,Ã¢â¬ described by the author Ruth Padel in Whom Gods Destroy as Ã¢â¬Å"Divinity issues prohibitions (do not kill your mother), forces you to break them, then punishes you for doing soÃ¢â¬ (215) explains perfectly the actions and ultimate fates of Medea, Jason, King Creon and his daughter, the chorus leader, and the two sons. Many of MedeaÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, which offend the gods, and the subsequentRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Medea By Euripides1970 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMedea The characters in Medea by Euripides have no free will; the gods control all. Consequently, the concept, Ã¢â¬Å"Divine Double Bind,Ã¢â¬ described by the author Ruth Padel in Whom Gods Destroy as Ã¢â¬Å"Divinity issues prohibitions (do not kill your mother), forces you to break them, then punishes you for doing soÃ¢â¬ (215) explains perfectly the actions and ultimate fates of Medea, Jason, King Creon and his daughter, the chorus leader, and the two sons. Many of MedeaÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, which offend the gods, andRead MoreGreek Tragedy By Euripides Medea1646 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Discuss the ways Greek tragedy authors addressed such topics as duty, honor, kingship, gender roles, and the other. Greek tragedy authors tend to use their writings as a means of social, political, and religious commentary. Both of the authors we read of, use their characters and the storyline development to test their readerÃ¢â¬â¢s moral boundaries. On the one hand, EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ Medea emphasizes Greek thoughts concerning foreigners, and denounces Athenian social bases through his characterÃ¢â¬â¢s traitsRead MoreThe Tragic Tragedy Of Medea By Euripides1844 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesInÃ MedeaÃ by Euripides, an unfortunate tragedy arose from devastating circumstances, centralizing around intense grief and rage. In the center of the horrific situation was Medea, who was the daughter of King Aeetes. She was the former wife of Jason, until he decided to abandon his family and duties as the head of the household by marrying Glauce, the Princess of Corinth. She murdered her children, Glauce, and Creon, the King of Corinth to satiate her overwhelming lust for blood and revenge. UndeniablyRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Euripides Medea And Ovid s Metamorphoses, Medea, And Juno898 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespain they have caused. In EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ Medea and OvidÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ Metamorphoses, Medea and Juno exhibit vengeance to defend th eir dignity. Primary Source In EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ Medea, Medea is very furious because Juno left her and her children to remarry the princess. Medea does not accept the betrayal and demands punishment for leaving her after all she has done for him. Creon is aware Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m afraid of you. You could hurt my daughter, even kill her. Every indication points that wayÃ¢â¬ (793). Medea knew she was going to exileRead MoreEvaluation of Euripides Essay942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEvaluation of Euripides Euripides has met the conventions of Attic Tragedy up to a particular extent. Although he was often criticised for his work, he followed the structure and cycles of the traditional tragedy. However, his stance on the themes and ideas set him apart from the other writers. It is unreasonable to compare Euripides with the traditional writers of Attic tragedy without understandingRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Medea By Sophocles1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnecessary for a top-notch tragedy. While these norms may seem to be easily understood through the reading of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s fine-tuned poetics, there is a different understanding that needs to be interpreted to truly grasp the significance and qualifications that makeup a good tragedy. Of the many tragedies that Euripides provides us with, I chose the tragedy of Medea to further analyze, and present a strong argument for why I think Aristotle would find Medea a top-notch tragedy. According to AristotleRead MoreMedea Character Analysis917 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHow would you judge Jason for his betrayal of Medea, and Medea for the killing of their children? Explain why. My judgement for this particular issue is not primarily based on the actions of Medea killing her children, since that in my opinion is an unforgivable act, yet there is a sense of pity evoked within the complexity MedeaÃ¢â¬â¢s character. Essentially, Medea had given up everything she had for Jason. Manipulated by Aphrodite and Hera in both the heart and mind to believe her feelings to be trueRead MoreAnalysis Of Euripides The Play Medea 1202 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Greek playwright Euripides, who lived from 480 BC to 406 BC, had four victories as a Tragedian. A third of the Ã¢â¬Å"Big ThreeÃ¢â¬ of tragedians, Euripides was, in his time, less successful than both Aeschylus and Sophocles, who had 13 and 20 victories. EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ writing was drastically different from that of the others. While playwrights like Sophocles wrote characters the way they should be ideally, Euripides wrote his characters truthfully and portrayed people as compassionate and cruel and complic atedRead More Love and Deception in Medea, by Euripides Essay507 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesLove and Deception in Medea, by Euripides There are many pieces of literature that may entail more than one theme throughout the story. The tragedy, Medea, by Euripides is very good example of this. Throughout this story, the themes of betrayal and love, revenge, and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights arise. Euripides brings these points up to help the reader to realize that women are powerful. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Betrayal is a very important theme throughout this story. Her husband Jason betrays Medea, when he abandons her
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Toms of Maine Case Study Organizational culture is the basic pattern of shared assumptions that have been created by the corporation to enable the employees in the organization to have a shared norm. There are varied sources for the development of the organizational culture; they include the following-the general influence from the external environment, the factors that are specific to the organization and the influence of the values that exist in the society such as the spiritual perspective. The spiritual perspectives that are held in the organizations can transform the organizational culture in the sense that it will create a behavior system that will be adopted by the personnel in the organization. The Tom ChappellÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦By giving back to their community (county, state, nation and world) they are a shining example of what they would like their employees to do. They also encourage their employees to do this by providing a Ã¢â¬Å"generous benefit package, including four wee ks of parental leave for mothers and fathers, as well as offers flexible work schedules, job sharing, and work-at-home programs. Child-care and elder-care referral service is provided, and child care is partially reimbursed for employees earning less than $32,500 annually.Ã¢â¬ (p.Show MoreRelatedTomÃ¢â¬â¢s Of Maine Case Study787 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswhich successfully accommodates a variety of conflicting spiritual perspectives in the workplace. 2. Tom Chappell created a spiritual framework for TomÃ¢â¬â¢s of Maine, a family-owned business. Can such a framework be created for a publicly traded company? What differences might there be in its effects? The spiritual framework for TomÃ¢â¬â¢s of Maine can definitely be created for publically traded companies. Spiritual, religious, ethical and moral issues are now being given great weight and considerationRead MoreTom of Maine1461 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCASE STUDIES CASE: TomÃ¢â¬â¢s of Maine: Ã¢â¬Å"Doing BusinessÃ¢â¬ Means Ã¢â¬Å"Doing GoodÃ¢â¬ Questions: 1. Does the TomÃ¢â¬â¢s of Maine experience prove that one can Ã¢â¬Å"do business with principles,Ã¢â¬ or are there business realities that make it hard for others to copy this principled management model? Yes, because what TomÃ¢â¬â¢s of Maine did is that they made their employees appreciate and apply the principles that Tom and Kate believed in. Despite some of the mistakes that they did, they were not afraid to tryRead MoreBurts Bees Market Opportunity Factors Essay752 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDefinition BurtÃ¢â¬â¢s Bees is the leader in the Natural Personal Care Products markets, with annual revenue of $61M. According to HooverÃ¢â¬â¢s (2013), BurtÃ¢â¬â¢s Bees Top 3 competitors are: 1) The Proctor Gamble Company 2) NatureÃ¢â¬â¢s Sunshine Products 3) TomÃ¢â¬â¢s of Maine BurtÃ¢â¬â¢s Bees demographic target market for the majority of their product line is educated females between the ages of 18-34 (Gnolfo, 2010). As an example of the target market opportunity in the United States, using U.S. Census (2010): 2010 CensusRead MoreEssay about Uncle Toms Cabin and the Grief of Harriet Beecher Stowe3451 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagestuberculosis. Later at age 38, she lost her infant son Charley to an outbreak of cholera. Together these two traumatic events amplified her condemnation of slavery and ultimately influenced the writing of one of Americas most controversial novels, Uncle Toms Cabin. On June 14, 1811 Harriet Beecher Stowe became the seventh child born into the religiously devout family of Lyman and Roxana Beecher. Lyman Beecher was a highly respected, but poor clergyman. Roxana, raised in culture and refinement, humblyRead MoreFour Organizational Culture Types2686 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesresearchers identified thirtyÃ¢â¬ânine important indicators. While such a list is helpful, it is still impractical for organizations to account for so many dimensions. Realizing this, Robert Quinn and John Rohrbaugh (1983) reviewed the results of many studies on this topic and determined that two major dimensions could account for such a broad range. Their Competing Values Framework combines these two dimensions, creating a 2x2 matrix with four clusters. discretion, and dynamism at one end of the scaleRead MoreAmerican Revolution and Study Guide Essay example5377 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesChapter 2 Study Guide Questions Ã¢â¬Å"The Planting of English AmericaÃ¢â¬ 1. Discuss English treatment of the Irish and its consequence (10pts) 2. What lessons do you think English colonists learned from their early Jamestown experience? Focus on matters of fulfilling expectations, financial support, leadership skills, and relations with the Indians. What specific developments illustrate that the English living in the plantation colonies tried to apply these lessons? (25 pts) 2. Compare and contrastRead MoreStarbucks Performance Management5640 Words Ã |Ã 23 Pagesresearch findings were of a secondary nature. The information was gathered through massive readings, but not through primary research-gathering processes. This study only reviews the performance of one major corporate entity, which reduces the justification of generalizability. Suggestions for future research would be: applying primary studies on a broader sample of globally operating entities to measure their spiritual performance; and formulating particular standards for this type of measurement.Read MoreChapter 1 ....Introduction to Organizational Behavior8028 Words Ã |Ã 33 Pagesshould know more about it, highlight some of the trends inÃ¯ ¬âuencing the study of organizational behavior, describe the anchors supporting the study of organizations, and introduce the concept that organizations are knowledge and learning systems. The Field of Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior (OB) is the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations. OB researchers systematically study individual, team, and organizationallevel characteristics that inÃ¯ ¬âuenceRead MoreConstraints and Challenges for the Global Manager13619 Words Ã |Ã 55 Pagesto tell whether elementary school-aged children and younger are part of this demographic group or whether the world they live in will be so different that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll comprise a different demographic cohort. Demographic age cohorts are important to our study of management because, as we said earlier, large numbers of people at certain stages in the life cycle can constrain decisions and actions taken by businesses, governments, educational institutions, and other organizations. But demographics doesnÃ¢â¬â¢tRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesOrganizational Behavior Comp rehensive Cases Indexes Glindex 637 663 616 623 Contents Preface xxii 1 1 Introduction What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Importance of Interpersonal Skills 4 What Managers Do 5 Management Functions 6 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management Roles 6 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management Skills 8 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 8 Ã¢â¬ ¢ A Review of the ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s Job 9 Enter Organizational Behavior 10 Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 11 Disciplines That Contribute to
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Compares uses meanings of lyrical passages in realist narratives of Fitzgeralds [The Great Gatsby], Joyces [Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man] Flauberts [Madame Bovary]. No matter how many or which levels of narrative are employed, each realist narrative moves in a particular direction. Thus the importance of lyricism in many realist narratives would seem to be something of a paradox. The inclusion, or eruption, of lyricism in such narratives may serve to increase presence as it adds dimensions to the narrator or focalizer whose thoughts or sensations are the site of the lyric interval. Yet it is always an interval. Lyricism can transcend, intensify or elevate but it must eventually be left behind as the narrative is resumed. Lyricism is an effort to step outside the referring inherent in narrative in order to allow the consciousness that produces it to have an interval of simply being without direct reference or narrative referral. We will write a custom essay sample on Lyricism in Three Novels or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Lyricism does not, therefore, move. The tension between the inherent immobility of lyricism and the
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
The Lausanne Movement includes sessions and forums that are dedicated to different issues and topics related to the question of evangelization. Lausanne Occasional Papers are usually presented as reports on the sessions of Issue Groups. In this context, Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 is a report on the conclusions made after Ã¢â¬Å"the Forum for World EvangelizationÃ¢â¬ that was held in Thailand in 2004, and the theme of the Forum was Ã¢â¬Å"A new vision, a new heart, a renewed callÃ¢â¬ 1.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As it is stated in the foreword to the report, it was important to attract more participants to discuss the problems of building the missional congregations and to focus on advantages of tentmaking while seeking Ã¢â¬Å"new direction from the Holy Spirit for world evangelizationÃ¢â¬ 2. From this point, Lausanne O ccasional Paper No. 39 presents the information on missional congregations as well as on tentmaking, and it is important to summarize the main points of the paper and to analyze them in the context of the discussed issue. Summary of the Main Points of Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 The report is divided into two main sections, where the first section discusses the concept of a missional congregation as well as the decisions made during the session regarding the building of missional congregations in the community. The second part of the report presents the opinions on tentmaking. It is stated in the report that the information on missional congregations depends on the previous research in local churches during which the role of missions was examined. Thus, the participants of the Forum Ã¢â¬Å"explored how to involve the local church in the expression of the gospel both in the Ã¢â¬Ëbuilding upÃ¢â¬â¢ of the disciples as well as to those outside the faith community, to the ends o f the earthÃ¢â¬ 3. According to the report, a missional congregation is a community or a church of Christ-followers who Ã¢â¬Å"are sent on a missionÃ¢â¬ 4. The first section offers the complete list of advantages of missional congregations. It is stated in the report that missional congregations contribute to building relations and meeting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs; they can address different cultures and pray for the renewal and benefits of other people without references to the religion or culture; their structures are holistic and the detailed discussion of the leadership in terms of missional congregations is provided. The authors of the report also point at the roles of missional congregationsÃ¢â¬â¢ representatives as missionaries, disciples, and priests. According to the idea of a missional congregation, each Christian should be a missionary that can promote the principles of evangelism as a priest, while supporting the other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, addressing their needs, and supporting connections of missional congregations5.Advertising Looking for critical writing on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the second part of the report, the main point for discussion is tentmaking. According to the authors, tentmaking is Ã¢â¬Å"a way in which members of the body of Christ can use their professional gifts as a means of taking the gospel to those who otherwise would not hear the Good NewsÃ¢â¬ 6. As a result, tentmaking is viewed as an effective approach to make people feel secured in spite of such issues as religious intolerance or violence. Thus, the authors of the report discuss the ways of finding and training tentmakers in detail in their report. Reflections and Ideas on Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 can be discussed as an important source in order to understand the role of modern missionaries in spreading the Word of God and principles of evangelization globally. The comments on who can serve as a missionary and how to cooperate with representatives of other cultures are supported with effective examples, and they sound as rather convincing arguments. It is possible to agree that even young people and women can serve as missionaries because they have the belief in their hearts7. Furthermore, much attention is paid to the discussion of the impact of globalization on the development of missional congregations and on opening more opportunities for missionaries. From this perspective, the meaning of the missional congregation can be viewed with references to the following statement: Ã¢â¬Å"Every local congregation is only a true representative of the body of Christ when they serve the world in missionÃ¢â¬ 8. In addition, focusing on the idea of a missional congregation, it is possible to state that it is a kind of an organizational structure that is necessary for people because such holistic structures as congregation s can be a good choice to provide support for individuals. However, there are statements in the report that can provoke more discussion. Concentrating on the role of missionaries and priests that can be played by each Christian regardless the status and position, the authors of the report note that each missionary is oriented to spreading the principles of evangelism among more persons while Ã¢â¬Å"bringing people to church at least monthlyÃ¢â¬ as a Ã¢â¬Å"minimum responsibilityÃ¢â¬ 9. Such limits can be discussed as rather surprising. In this situation, missionaries can be viewed as not only serving and encouraging people but also as involving them in a congregation. Nevertheless, the proposed model of the local church life can be successful, and it is possible to agree with the authors that the modern church should be modified to look like a congregation.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other important question to focus on is tentmaking. First, it seems that the idea is rather challenging for the society because the previously followed patterns of the church life differed significantly. However, the authors of the report provide rather useful comments on how tentmaking can be realized in the country and globally and what training should be proposed to tentmakers in order to achieve the higher results. Reading the report, it is possible to conclude that tentmaking is a proper choice for modern communities where it is necessary to avoid the religious intolerance, to cope with different cultural conflicts, to prevent prejudice and aggression toward immigrants, and to meet expectations associated with the globalization changes. From this point, it is possible to agree that such approaches as the building of missional congregations and tentmaking can provide people with more happiness, security, and belief i n GodÃ¢â¬â¢s mercy. Conclusion Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 provides a reader with a lot of opportunities to think about the aspects of missions and tentmaking. Referring to the report, it is possible to discuss the ways of transformation for traditional local churches while focusing on the advantages of missional congregations described in the report in detail. The authors of the report provide reasons to view missional congregations as a new form of uniting people who follow the teachings and principles of evangelism not only in local communities but also globally. Bibliography Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization. Ã¢â¬Å"The Local Church in Mission: Becoming a Missional Congregation in the Twenty-First Century Global Context and the Opportunities Offered Through Tentmaking Ministry (Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39)Ã¢â¬ . Web. Footnotes 1 Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization, Ã¢â¬Å"The Local Church in Mission: Becoming a Missional Congregation in the Twenty -First Century Global Context and the Opportunities Offered Through Tentmaking Ministry (Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39)Ã¢â¬ . 2 Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization, Ã¢â¬Å"The Local Church in MissionÃ¢â¬ , 3.Advertising Looking for critical writing on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 3 Ibid., 7. 4 Ibid., 7. 5 Ibid., 10. 6 Ibid., 22. 7 Ibid., 10. 8 Ibid., 8. 9 Ibid., 14. This critical writing on Lausanne Occasional Paper No. 39 was written and submitted by user Phasma to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
The Great Depression and the New Deal Essays The Great Depression and the New Deal Essay The Great Depression and the New Deal Essay Question 1 To fight the Depression, Hoover took a standard Republican route and Roosevelt claimed the American people needed a New Deal. Use specific ideas and programs to compare and contrast Hoovers and Roosevelts approached and evaluate the success. During the Roaring Twenties, the American people seemed to live in a fantasy world of wealth and luxury. The economy was booming due to little government interference and workers were receiving higher wages and began to receive welfare from their employers. Citizens could choose from new consumer products, such as refrigerators, washing machines, and the automobile, which revolutionized the way people traveled in the United States. However, this newfound prosperity would be short lived. At the end of the Roaring Twenties, the American people witnessed the worst economic depression in history and they were apart of it. Unemployment rates skyrocketed through the roof and people were losing millions of dollars after the stock market cr ash in 1929. After having little regulation of the economy during the 1920s, the American people were in desperate need of government assistance. Current President Hoover followed his conservative approach that he had used throughout his term and chose to do little or nothing about the depression, thinking that it would end shortly. The Great Depression did not end quickly and the American people were in need of a strong leader who was willing to take drastic action. The United States chose Franklin Delano Roosevelt to lead America away from depression and his New Deals would return America to its prosperous times. To being with, Herbert Hoover and the majority of the American people thought that the depression would pass in a short period of time. The United States had a few depressions during the 1800s and only two of them lasted longer than a year. However, this depression would last from October of 1929 to the entrance of World War II b
Saturday, November 23, 2019
George C Marshall essays Starting at a very young age George Catlett showed the attributes of a general and leader. Growing up in Uniontown Pennsylvania under the strict rule of his father, George Catlett Marshall Sr. and his mother, The Marshall plan encouraged European nations to work together to achieve economic recovery after World War II. In June 1947, the United States agreed to give aid to Europe if the countries would meet to decide what they needed. The official name of the plan was the European Recovery Program. It was called the Marshall Plan because George Marshall, the Secretary of State at the time first suggested it. The Plan first took action in April 1948; when Congress established the (ECA) Economic Cooperation Administration to administer foreign aid. Seventeen nations formed the (OEEC) Organization for European Economic Cooperation to assist the ECA and develop cooperation among its members. The United States sent about $13 billion in food, machinery, and other products to Europe. Marshall was dedicated to building a strong defense, but he also labored to find peaceful solutions to world conflicts. In December 1953, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in recognition of his contributions to the economic rehabilitation of Europe. He was the first soldier to win that honor. Through the words of Winston Churchill "During my long and close association with successive American administrations, there are few men whose qualities of mind and character have impressed me so deeply as those of General Marshall. He is a great American, but he is far more than that. In war he was as wise and understanding in counsel as he was resolute in action. In peace he was the architect who planned the restoration of our battered European economy and, at the same time, labored tirelessly to establish a system of Western defense. He has always fought victoriously against defeatism, discouragement, and disillusion. Succeeding generations must ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Architecture and Strategic Management - Essay Example (Hale, 2000; P 5) Clustering distribution centers in a single geographic area is among the new trends. There is also a move towards transportation specialization, such as companies that depend on substantial parcel air transport. Labor availability and technology advances are factors driving many companies to consolidate their distribution and structural systems into fewer but larger, regional facilities. However, not all companies are consolidating their distribution centers: in many areas, the consolidation trend itself is producing a new generation of smaller, local distribution centers. Experts say that new logistical handling systems and greater outsourcing-in particular, the increased use of third-party logistics providers-seem to be driving this trend. This trend has had a large bearing on how architects are being perceived. With the advent of management as a wholesome science that has trickled into every industry and profession, architects are now expected to handle the managerial aspects of construction and design. One of the major implications for this is cost control and financial projection, health and safety management as well as development control. When involved in a project, the major fo... When involved in a project, the major focus is on the economics and what can be achieved within a given budget. Passing this down to the architects has various dimensions to it. The creative part can be better coordinated and decided in the initial stages so as to avoid chaos later. The demerit of this is that the focus might shift from the creative to the strategic management options where some architects might be ill equipped to handle such responsibilities. The solution to such a problem is a short course or orientation program in financial and development management when educating or selecting architects. Incident Command System for High Rise Buildings Risk is also a major part of the strategic management and development part of a structure. The above diagram is a depiction of an example of sectorisation for a high rise building. The sectorisation for high rise buildings must consist of the optimum deployment and utilization of resources. Managing a high rise building is a matter of creating sectors so as to give out commands easily and smoothly in case of strategic, tactical and operational importance. The sectors for operation must include: Vulnerability assessment & intrusion detection systems Risk assessment & risk management Backups & business continuity planning Disaster recovery planning Computer incident response teams Digital investigation & incident post-mortem Privacy & anonymity in cyberspace; censorship & content filtering Management responsibilities & liabilities The future of information assurance Professional development The Harrow Court Incident The Harrow Court Incident refers to the tragic chain of events where two firefighters - Firefighter Wornham and Firefighter Miller - lost their lives on the 2nd of February, 2005. The
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Social anxiety - Research Paper Example People experiencing from social phobia are not afraid of fear, rather they are afraid of what people think about them and how people perceive them. This fear is mostly associated with the negative perception or the belief that people perceive negatively about the person being evaluated. Due to this fear, individuals believe that they are going to be negatively assessed by others, will not be acceptable by others, will be bullied and people might disapprove them. Due to these perceptions, an individual may face the problem of social anxiety. Individuals living in US aging between 18 and 54 are most commonly affected by this disorder, around 3.7% of the total population which accounts for 5.3 million Americans are said to be experiencing this disease (Kahn, 2001, p.51). Twice the number of women are said to be effected by this disorder as compared to men but higher number of men seek assistance to solve this issue (Kahn, 2001, p.51). Mostly an individual is affected by this disease dur ing childhood; individuals who cross the age of 25 have less chances of developing this disorder. Social anxiety is one of the top most common forms of disorders experienced by US. Body During the 1980s, social anxiety was realized as a mental disposition by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder; this realization took place much later than other forms of mental issues (Kearney, 2005, p.11). Heavy amount of research and study has not focused on this disease but quite a lot of physicians and researchers are working towards this social and mental problem. Researchers have been able to identify two forms of social phobia, though it is unclear whether both these problems are similar or distinct. The first kind of social phobia is one in which people are afraid of conducting one of the several forms of social actions such as speaking in front of the public and working or eating while around people. The second division of social phobia is recognized as generalized social phobia, people experiencing this form of social phobia are afraid of conducting all sorts of social activities (Kearney, 2005, p.12). Media has paid attention to social phobia and has stated that pharmaceutical companies are trying to sell medication that is used to solve the issue of shyness and they believe that shyness is not a medical condition (Gambrill, 2012, p.67). The issue of pharmaceutical companies operating in an unethical way to make profits should not be mixed with the issue of social phobia as everyday several individuals throughout the world along with US experience this metal disorder and are not able to complete their social obligations. An individual should not be labeled as someone who is experiencing any disease if they are going through emotional changes that are important for their life. But proper importance needs to be assigned to someone who is actually experiencing certain mental issues. Social phobia or social anxiety itself is a label given to those who are actually suffering from these issues and these labeling aids them in obtaining help from physicians and gain support from others who are experiencing the same challenge. Experiencing social anxiety is not a huge issue, thus others need to accept such people and provide support to them and people suffering from this disorder want to alter the way they are living their lives. It is a myth that socially anxious people do not prefer to be social or are against
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Political philosophy Essay The concept of social contract theory is that in the beginning man lived in the state of nature. They had no government and there was no law to regulate them. There were hardships and oppression on the sections of the society. To overcome from these hardships they entered into two agreements which are:- 1. ?Pactum Unionis? ; and 2. ?Pactum Subjectionis?. By the first pact of unionis, people sought protection of their lives and property. As, a result of it a society was formed where people undertook to respect each other and live in peace and harmony. By the second pact of subjectionis, people united together and pledged to obey an authority and surrendered the whole or part of their freedom and rights to an authority. The authority guaranteed everyone protection of life, property and to a certain extent liberty. Thus, they must agree to establish society by collectively and reciprocally renouncing the rights they had against one another in the State of Nature and they must imbue some one person or assembly of persons with the authority and power to enforce the initial contract. In other words, to ensure their escape from the State of Nature, they must both agree to live together under common laws, and create an enforcement mechanism for the social contract and the laws that constitute it. Thus, the authority or the government or the sovereign or the state came into being because of the two agreements. Analysis of the theory of Social Contract by Thomas Hobbes ? Thomas Hobbes theory of Social Contract appeared for the first time in Leviathan published in the year 1651 during the Civil War in Britain. Thomas Hobbes? legal theory is based on ? Social contract?. According to him, prior to Social Contract, man lived in the State of Nature. Man? s life in the State of NATURE was one of fear and selfishness. Man lived in chaotic condition of constant fear. Life in the State of Nature was ? solitary? , ? poor? , ? nasty? , ? brutish? , and ? short?. ? Man has a natural desire for security and order. In order to secure self- protection and self-preservation, and to avoid misery and pain, man entered Page 2 of 7 into a contract. This idea of self-preservation and self-protection are inherent in man? s nature and in order to achieve this, they voluntarily surrendered all their rights and freedoms to some authority by this contract who must command obedience. As a result of this contract, the mightiest authority is to protect and preserve their lives and property. This led to the emergence of the institution of the ? ruler? or ? monarch? , who shall be the absolute head. Subjects had no rights against the absolute authority or the sovereign and he is to be obeyed in all situations however bad or unworthy he might be. However, Hobbes placed moral obligations on the sovereign who shall be bound by natural law. ? Hence, it can be deduced that, Hobbes was the supporter of absolutism. In the opinion of Hobbes, ? law is dependent upon the sanction of the sovereign and the Government without sword are but words and of no strength to secure a man at all?. He therefore, reiterated that civil law is the real law because it is commanded and enforced by the sovereign. Thus, he upheld the principle of ? Might is always Right?. ? Hobbes thus infers from his mechanistic theory of human nature that humans are necessarily and exclusively self-interested. All men pursue only what they perceive to be in their own individually considered best interests. They respond mechanistically by being drawn to that which they desire and repelled by that to which they are averse. In addition to being exclusively self-interested, Hobbes also argues that human beings are reasonable. They have in them the rational capacity to pursue their desires as efficiently and maximally as possible. From these premises of human nature, Hobbes goes on to construct a provocative and compelling argument for which they ought to be willing to submit themselves to political authority. He did this by imagining persons in a situation prior to the establishment of society, the State of Nature. ? Hobbes impels subjects to surrender all their rights and vest all liberties in the sovereign for preservation of peace, life and prosperity of the subjects. It is in this way the natural law became a moral guide or directive to the sovereign for preservation of the natural rights of the subjects. For Hobbes all law is dependent upon the sanction of the sovereign. All real law is civil law, the law commanded and Page 3 of 7 enforced by the sovereign and are brought into the world for nothing else but to limit the natural liberty of particular men, in such a manner, as they might not hurt but to assist one another and join together against a common enemy. He advocated for an established order. Hence, Individualism, materialism, utilitarianism and absolutions are inter-woven in the theory of Hobbes. Analysis of the theory of Social Contract by John Locke ? John Locke theory of Social Contract is different than that of Hobbes. According to him, man lived in the State of Nature, but his concept of the State of Nature is different as contemplated by Hobbesian theory. Locke? s view about the state of nature is not as miserable as that of Hobbes. It was reasonably good and enjoyable, but the property was not secure. He considered State of Nature as a ? Golden Age?. It was a state of ? peace, goodwill, mutual assistance, and preservation?. In that state of nature, men had all the rights which nature could give them. Locke justifies this by saying that in the State of Nature, the natural condition of mankind was a state of perfect and complete liberty to conduct one? s life as one best sees fit. It was free from the interference of others. In that state of nature, all were equal and independent. This does not mean, however, that it was a state of license. It was one not free to do anything at all one pleases, or even anything that one judges to be in one? s interest. The State of Nature, although a state wherein there was no civil authority or government to punish people for transgressions against laws, was not a state without morality. The State of Nature was pre-political, but it was not pre- moral. Persons are assumed to be equal to one another in such a state, and therefore equally capable of discovering and being bound by the Law of Nature. So, the State Ã Nature was a ? state of liberty? , where persons are free to pursue their own interests and plans, free from interference and, because of the Law of Nature and the restrictions that it imposes upon persons, it is relatively peaceful. ? Property plays an essential role in Locke? s argument for civil government and the contract that establishes it. According to Locke, private property is created when a person mixes his labour with the raw materials of nature. Given the implications of the Law of Nature, there are limits as to how much property one can own: one is not Page 4 of 7allowed to take so more from nature than oneself can use, thereby leaving others without enough for themselves, because nature is given to all of mankind for its common subsistence. One cannot take more than his own fair share. Property is the linchpin of Locke? s argument for the social contract and civil government because it is the protection of their property, including their property in their own bodies, that men seek when they decide to abandon the State of Nature. ? John Locke considered property in the State of Nature as insecure because of three conditions; they are:- 1. Absence of established law; 2. Absence of impartial Judge; and 3. Absence of natural power to execute natural laws. ? Thus, man in the State of Nature felt need to protect their property and for the purpose of protection of their property, men entered into the ? Social Contract?. Under the contract, man did not surrender all their rights to one single individual, but they surrendered only the right to preserve / maintain order and enforce the law of nature. The individual retained with them the other rights, i. e. , right to life, liberty and estate because these rights were considered natural and inalienable rights of men.? Having created a political society and government through their consent, men then gained three things which they lacked in the State of Nature: laws, judges to adjudicate laws, and the executive power necessary to enforce these laws. Each man therefore gives over the power to protect himself and punish transgressors of the Law of Nature to the government that he has created through the compact. ? According to Locke, the purpose of the Government and law is to uphold and protect the natural rights of men. So long as the Government fulfils this purpose, the laws given by it are valid and binding but, when it ceases to fulfil it, then the laws would have no validity and the Government can be thrown out of power. In Lockes view, unlimited sovereignty is contrary to natural law. ? Hence, John Locke advocated the principle of -? a state of liberty; not of license?. Locke advocated a state for the general good of people. He pleaded for a constitutionally limited government. Page 5 of 7 ? Locke, in fact made life, liberty and property, his three cardinal rights, which greatly dominated and influenced the Declaration of American Independence, 1776. Analysis of the theory of Social Contract by Jean Jacques Rousseau ? Jean Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher who gave a new interpretation to the theory of Social Contract in his work The Social Contract and Emile. According to him, social contract is not a historical fact but a hypothetical construction of reason. Prior to the Social Contract, the life in the State of Nature was happy and there was equality among men. As time passed, however, humanity faced certain changes. As the overall population increased, the means by which people could satisfy their needs had to change. People slowly began to live together in small families, and then in small communities. Divisions of labour were introduced, both within and between families, and discoveries and inventions made life easier, giving rise to leisure time. Such leisure time inevitably led people to make comparisons between themselves and others, resulting in public values, leading to shame and envy, pride and contempt. Most importantly however, according to Rousseau, was the invention of private property, which constituted the pivotal moment in humanity? s evolution out of a simple, pure state into one, characterized by greed, competition, vanity, inequality, and vice. For Rousseau the invention of property constitutes humanity? s ? fall from grace? out of the State of Nature. For this purpose, they surrendered their rights not to a single individual but to the community as a whole which Rousseau termed as ? general will?. ? According to Rousseau, the original ? freedom, happiness, equality and liberty? which existed in primitive societies prior to the social contract was lost in the modern civilisation. Through Social Contract, a new form of social organisation- the state was formed to assure and guarantee rights, liberties freedom and equality. The essence of the Rousseau? s theory of General Will is that State and Law were the product of General Will of the people. State and the Laws are made by it and if the government and laws do not conform to ? general will? , they would be discarded. While the individual parts with his natural rights, in return he gets civil liberties such as freedom of speech, equality, assembly, etc. Page 6 of 7 ? The ? General Will? , therefore, for all purposes, was the will of majority citizens to which blind obedience was to be given. The majority was accepted on the belief that majority view is right than minority view. Each individual is not subject to any other individual but to the ? general will? and to obey this is to obey himself. His sovereignty is infallible, indivisible, unrepresentable and illimitable. ? Thus, Rousseau favoured peoples sovereignty. His natural law theory is confined to the freedom and liberty of the individual. For him, State, law, sovereignty, general will, etc. are interchangeable terms. Rousseau? s theory inspired French and American revolutions and given impetus to nationalism. He based his theory of social contract on the principle of ? Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains?. COMPARISION OF THE THEORY OF SOCIAL CONTRACT OF THOMAS HOBBES, JOHN LOCKE AND JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU 1. Hobbes asserts that without subjection to a common power of their rights and freedoms, men are necessarily at war. Locke and Rousseau, on the contrary, set forth the view that the state exists to preserve and protect the natural rights of its citizens. When governments fail in that task, citizens have the right and sometimes the duty to withdraw their support and even to rebel. 2. Hobbes view was that whatever the state does is just. All of society is a direct creation of the state, and a reflection of the will of the ruler. According to Locke, the only important role of the state is to ensure that justice is seen to be done. While Rousseau view is that the State must in all circumstance ensure freedom and liberty of individuals. 3. Hobbes theory of Social Contract supports absolute sovereign without giving any value to individuals, while Locke and Rousseau supports individual than the state or the government. 4. To Hobbes, the sovereign and the government are identical but Rousseau makes a distinction between the two. He rules out a representative form of government. But, Locke does not make any such distinction. Page 7 of 7 5. Rousseau? s view of sovereignty was a compromise between the constitutionalism of Locke and absolutism of Hobbes. CRITICAL APPREHENTION 1. Rousseau propounded that state, law and the government are interchangeable, but this in present senerio is different. Even though government can be overthrown but not the state. A state exists even there is no government. 2. Hobbes concept of absolutism is totally a vague concept in present scenario. Democracy is the need and examples may be taken from Burma and other nations. 3. According to Hobbes, the sovereign should have absolute authority. This is against the rule of law because absolute power in one authority brings arbitrariness. 4. Locke concept of State of nature is vague as any conflict with regard to property always leads to havoc in any society. Hence, there cannot be a society in peace if they have been conflict with regard to property. 5. Locke concept of laissez-faire is not of welfare oriented. Now in present scenario, every state undertake steps to form a welfare state.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Forest Soils on Acid Forest ecosystems are important both ecologically and economically. It is arguable that the most fundamental dynamic of the forest ecosystem is the forest soil. The acidity of forest soils can alter the chemistry, biota, and hydraulics of the soil, and thus, alter the soil formation characteristics and the soil composition. It follows that the acidification of forest soils demands a great deal of research and attention. Forest soils are commonly found to have pH readings of 4-6, even in areas of moderate to low acid deposition (Binkley et al, p. 4). In fact, an abundance of forest vegetation thrives on and stabilizes most forest soils at relatively low pH levels. It seems as though forest ecosystems generally thrive upon strongly acid soils. Though forest soils naturally are acidic, problems can occur when the acidity levels are raised artificially through processes such as acid rain. This paper will investigate the effects of higher than normal acidity and acid deposition in forest soils to gain a greater understanding of current and potential problems to forest soils and ecosystems. It is important to remember when discussing the implications of high acid in forest soils that there are several general factors that will alter acidic effects on soil chemistry, hydrology, biota, and weathering. These factors include soil type, soil sensitivity, and the quantity of precipitation. Texture, structure, grain size, and consistence are all crucial to defining the soil type or series and also to the amount of time soil is exposed to acid deposition. In a particular study on humus degradation based on simulated "acid rains" conducted by Greszta et al. (1991) revealed the extent to which soil type influenced ... ...556-563. Mulder, J., J.J. M. van Grinsven, and N. van Breemen. 1987. Impacts of acid atmospheric deposition on woodland soils in the Netherlands: III. aluminum chemistry. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51: pp. 1640-1646. Rampazzo, N., and W.E.H. Blum. 1992. Changes in chemistry and minerology of forest soils by acid rain. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 61: pp. 209-220. Sharpe, W.E., B.R. Swistock, and D.R. Dewalle. 1992. A greenhouse study of northern red oak seedling growth on two forest soils at different stages of acidification. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 66: pp. 121-133. Singer, M.J., and D.N. Munns. 1996. Soils: An Introduction. Prentice-Hall, Inc. New Jersey. Tamm, C.O., and L. Hallbacken. 1986. Changes in soil pH over a 50-year period under different forest canopies in SW Sweden. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 31: pp. 337 341.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4. 1 Chapter 6 Worksheet/Student 6. 1. 2 Worksheet: Research Laptops, Smartphones, and PDAs Print and complete this worksheet. In this worksheet, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information, and then enter the specifications for a laptop, smartphone, and PDA onto this worksheet. What type of equipment do you want? What features are important to you? For example, you may want a laptop that has an 80 GB hard drive and plays DVDs or has built-in wireless capability. You may need a smartphone with Internet access or a PDA that takes pictures.Shop around, and in the table below list the features and cost for a laptop, smartphone, and PDA. Equipment Laptop Computer:MacBook Pro Features ? 2. 6GHz quad-core Intel Core i7 ? Turbo Boost up to 3. 6GHz ? 8GB 1600MHz memory 1 ? 512GB flash storage ? Intel HD Graphics 4000 ? NVIDIA GeForce GT 650M with 1GB of GDDR5 memory 2 ? Built-in battery (7 hours) Cost $2199. 0 Smartp hone:Galaxy S III ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2100 mAh Lithium Ion Battery Dimensions 5. 4Ã¢â¬ x 2. 8Ã¢â¬ x . 3Ã¢â¬ 4. 8Ã¢â¬ ³ (1280Ãâ"720) HD Super AMOLED touchscreen 4. 7 oz 1. 5 GHz dual core processor 16GB or 32GB ROM / 2GB RAM.Supports up to 64GB MicroSD card. A2DP, AVRCP, GAVDP, HFP 1. 5, PBAP, HSP, HID, GOEP, SDAP/SDP, OPP, SPP, PAN, Stereo Streaming, MAP, AVDTP, OBEX (CR) Andriod Market 4G LTE Internet GPS Navigation Wifi 8. 0 megapixel camera $549. 99 ? ? ? ? ? PDA:HP iPAQ 110 Classic PDA Batteries Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) 1200 mAh Standard Battery 1 x 4-pin Mini-phone Headphone 3. 5Ã¢â¬ ³ QVGA Transflective TFT Touchscreen 240 x 320 PDA $323. 70 Ports 1 x USB 2. 0 Ã¢â¬â Mini USB Display Screen Display Resolution Product Type Manufacturer FA980AA Part Number Manufacturer www. hp. comWebsite Address Manufacturer Hewlett-Packard Product Model 110 Product Name iPAQ 110 Classic PDA Product Line Brand Name Standard Memory Memory Technology Package Contents iPAQ HP 64 MB SDRAM ? iPAQ 110 Classic PDA ? Mini USB Synchronization/Charge Cable ? Documentation ? Companion CD-ROM ? Standard Battery ? AC Adapter ? Power Cord ? Slip Case ? Stylus IEEE 802. 11b/g Wi-Fi Product Series 100 Flash Memory 256 MB Network Bluetooth 2. 0 Bluetooth Weight 3. 68 oz (Approximate) Height Width Depth Processor Operating System Limited Warranty 4. 6Ã¢â¬ ³ 2. 7Ã¢â¬ ³ 0. 5Ã¢â¬ ³ Marvell PXA310 624 MHz Windows Mobile 6 Classic 1 Year
Sunday, November 10, 2019
There is a mindset in the current society that men make better politicians than women. In fact, that statement is not true. Women make good politicians too, some are even better than men in many aspects. Women politicians make better politicians because they compromise better, are more trustworthy and cooperative, plus they are more strong-minded as compared to men. One of the best example is Christine Lagarde the first female Minister of Economic Affairs in a G8 economy which is the governments of eight of the world's largest economies(Christine Lagarde, pars. 3).She is also voted as the world's 9th most powerful woman according to Forbes magazine. Women politicians have a more compromising and friendly nature than men. This ultimately becomes a highly useful political tool for political campaign. They tend to face difficult situations with a calm attitude. For example, Ms. Indra Gandhi, the first female prime minister in India chose a peaceful way to rule her country. When her coun try was at war with Pakistan in 1971, she signed the treaty of friendship and cooperation with Pakistan to avoid financial hardship and instability in her country (Palekar, pars.Ã 2-5).Thus, resulting a stable economy in India. She ruled her country effectively by getting moral support from all the ministers and maintaning good relationship with the other countries which helped in the economic growth of India. This would not have happened without her compromising and friendly nature. Aside from that, female politicians also are more cooperative and trustworthy than men. Research shows, women are more skilled at making people work together.This is because women are better at communicating with each other during work, they implement successful strategies thereby achieving higher results. On the other hand, men tend to excel more at bamboozling and cheating. This is proven by the studies of Rolf Kuemmerli and colleagues by repeating a game called Prisoner's Dilemma. This game involve s two people, they need to cooperate with each other to obtain a win-win situation. Studies shows that men do not cooperate as well as women because women have a better ability to interact and comprehend messages that one is trying to deliver (Highfield, pars.Ã 5-11).In addition, women are found to be more trustworthy than men. This statement is proven by Professor Roger Steare using the Ã¢â¬Å"Moral DNAÃ¢â¬ test by measuring a person's morality and changes in their value system when they enter the workplace. According to results, women have more moral values , proving that they are more trustworthy (Knight, pars. 3-5). Making them better politicians. Besides that, scientists claimed that male politicians are more decisive than female politicians (Men more decisive, pars. 5-9) .However, that doesn't mean that female politicians are not good at making decisions. In fact, female politician are less decisive but more strong-minded than men as they consider their decision thoroughl y before finalizing. Before making a desicion, they examine the consequences towards an individual, society and the country and seek for a win-win solution. They search for long-term solutions by using retention strategies as a way to improve the results. Thus, they have the capacity to be more balanced in decision-making.Not only that, women are more precautious and they tend to make less mistakes in their work. This is because women always think twice and recheck their work before completing the final touches. This indirectly proves that women are better politicians than men. In my opinion, women politicians make better politicians because they compromise better, are more trustworthy and cooperative, plus they are more strong-minded as compared to men. They have more good aspects when compared to men. Thus, women are better politicians than men.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Theories of Personality Essay Example Theories of Personality Essay Theories of Personality Essay Theories of Personality Psychoanalytic perspective is based on Sigmund Frued perspectives about early experiences it focuses on the importance of the unconscious mind which contains thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories/past experiences in which we are unaware of. The id operates on the pleasure principle by satisfying basic urges, needs, and desires. Ego operates on the reality principle, satisfies the idÃ¢â¬â¢s desires in ways that it will cause pleasure instead of pain. Superego strives for perfection, positive feelings and negative feelings of guilt. These three systems were interactions of FruedÃ¢â¬â¢s view of personality structure. Freud perspective also focused on psychosexual stages which is the childhood stages of development. Defense mechanisms are methods of reducing anxiety. This perspective could account for the development of introverted and an extroverted personality Humanistic perspective focuses on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s uniqueness and their ability and responsibility to make choices in their lives. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers were the founders of this theory they believed that a persons free choice, free will, and understanding of their own experiences and feelings. The meanings of events in his or her life are the most important things to study. Carl Rogers believed that Human nature is viewed as basically good and that we all strive for actualizing tendencies but never reached them if based on the opinions of others. Rogers used client-centered therapy to raise the self-concept of the client and stop their tendencies to look for others opinions. The clientÃ¢â¬â¢s esteem needs will be met and hopefully seize from concerning other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions. Rogers also developed a q-sort to judge the self-concept. The humanistic perspective can lead to an introverted personality by the individual not reaching their actualizing tendencies because of the opinions of others. The individual may base their level of self-concept on othersÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions and if he/she receives negative opinions then that may lead the individual to have low self-esteem and an introverted personality. The humanistic perspective can also lead to an extroverted personality by the individual raising their self-concept by stopping their tendencies to look for others approval. Once they accept themselves, their esteem needs will be met and obtain gratification about themselves. Once their self-esteem rises, the individual will feel more comfortable socializing and be more energized The Trait perspective suggests that individual personalities are composed broad dispositions. The trait approach to personality is focused on differences between individuals. A trait is defined as a relatively stable predisposition to behave in a specific way. The Ã¢â¬Å"Big FiveÃ¢â¬ is factors of personality that represents five core traits that interact to form human personality. These traits were Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness, and Extraversion. Psychologist, Gordon Allport believed that every individual was unique and categorized their traits in three levels: Cardinal Traits (traits that dominate an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s whole life), Central Traits (general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality), and Secondary Traits (traits that are sometimes related to attitudes and often appear only in certain situations). Also British psychologist Hans Eysenck developed a model of personality based upon just three universal trails. Introversion/Extraversion: Introversion involves directing attention on inner experiences, while extraversion relates to focusing attention outward on the environment. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability: Neuroticism refers to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to become upset or emotional, while stability refers to the tendency to remain emotionally constant. Finally there is Psychoticism which is having difficulty dealing with reality and may be antisocial, hostile, non-empathetic and manipulative. The trait perspective can lead to an introverted personality by having psychoticism that perhaps consisted from a genetic basis. An individual might have inherited psychoticism, thus leading the individual to have interpersonal hostility and an introverted personality. The trait perspective can lead to an extroverted personality by having Extraversion traits as the individuals Cardinal traits. The individuals attitude would be sociable, fun-loving, and affectionate, plus all that will be their dominate traits, thus having and extroverted personality. Introversion involves directing attention on inner experiences, while extraversion relates to focusing attention outward on other people and the environment. So, a person high in introversion might be quiet and reserved, while an individual high in extraversion might be sociable and outgoing. The social cognitive perspective was proposed by Albert Bandura it emphasizes the interactions of a person and their situations. Social cognitive theorists focused on how we and our environment interact they believed we learn many of our behaviors by observing others as well as mental process which was thinking about our situations affects our behavior. A. Learned Helplessness- Learned helplessness is when people and animals experience no control over repeated bad events and then come to feel hopeless, helpless and depressed. An example of learned helplessness is a person with low self esteem, they start to feel hopeless and depressed when they think someone else is better than them whether they are better looking, or better at doing something they begin to let there guard down and then feel depressed and hopeless. Optimistic Attributional Style- A positive or negative way of explaining events in their lives. A person may say that a positive event happened because of them and they also believe that more positive things will happen in the future due to that event. As for negative events they see them as it not being their fault. An example would be External Locus of Control- The perception that chance or outside forces beyond oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal control determine oneÃ¢â¬â¢s fate. Individuals who have no self-control are external locus of control. Self- serving Bias- is a readiness to perceive oneself favorably. It refers to attribute positive outcomes to personal factors, but attribute negative outcomes to external factors. An example would be if you won your first track meet, you might say that this was due to the fact that you practiced hard, or that youÃ¢â¬â¢re a fast runner. If you lost, you might blame the referee, the weather, or the fields where you are competing rather than admitting that you did not do your best. Psychology
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Counterintelligence essays As far as intelligence organizations, intelligence designates information that is gathered by these governmental agencies and used for purposes of national security and foreign policy. The US Intelligence Community is comprised of sixteen agencies but the total number of security and intelligences agencies is much larger covering an impressive number of possible threats to national security; it included the Central Intelligence Agency CIA an independent organization. Thesis: Intelligence responsibilities need to be shared by multiple agencies because different threats require different approaches; this would also prevent prevailing partisan influences. Intelligence agencies are governmental thus political tools for shaping foreign policy and for homeland protection hence they are subject to the process of specialization. Specialization is a concept which is applied to science; it allows close study of problems and theories; its downside is that it focuses the attention on a single area of study which in turn, limits valid perspectives in other areas which might influence our area of interest. Specialization is needed not only in the academic field but also for its contributions to public discourse and policy1. Intelligence techniques are utilized both during war and peace for a wide range of foreign policy functions, from espionage to political assassination. In the case of public policy making, decision makers apply one instrument in a set of cases based on estimates of likely effects. The governmental function of intelligence agencies are normally shrouded in secrecy. As far as foreign intelligence, it implies understanding past events, analyzing current conditions, and thus attempting to predict the future. This predictability is crucial to intelligence agencies whose mission is to gather information, provide a coherent analysis, and cooperate with other institutions. Some voices are quite critical of the way in...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
The effectiveness of the budgetary control system in 'Cleaning For London' - Essay Example It will include illustrating and evaluating the role of budgetary control in support to internal planning and decision making. It aims to create an effective budgetary control system for its operations, to identify cost behaviours and to propose a suitable recommendation for improvement. Budget is a quantitative financial plan of operations. It identifies the resources needed in order to accomplish the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and objectives. It contains detailed plans and policies to be pursued in a future accounting period. It is continuous where one updates the budget for the year at the end of each month or each quarter. A continuous budget remains more relevant and more current. As a service company, Ã¢â¬Å"Cleaning Services for LondonÃ¢â¬ the operating budget includes purchase budget, human resources budget and sales budget. One of the major facets of budgeting is cost control. Budgets are the key to cost control. The purpose of budgetary control is to help master the financial aspects of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations and solve problems before they occur. Financial control is exercised by managers in preparing budgets for revenues and expenditures of an organisation in advance. Budgetary control facilitates the management and allocation of resources and funds in operating the business to achieve desired outcomes or to provide basis for revision of business objectives and plans. The activities of the company are categorized into two Ã¢â¬â revenue generators and cost drivers. These main activities summarise the operations of the company in financial terms where revenue generators are cash inflow of the company while cost drivers are expenses incurred in the operation of the business. The company utilises a simple budget system in line with a business plan for one year. The manager who is responsible for the financial, marketing, administrative and operational matters uses cash flow forecasts as basis
Friday, November 1, 2019
Strategic and Financial Decision Making - Essay Example The cost of financing through equity is more than that of debt. The bond holders are paid fixed rate of interest every year, hence they bear no risk. The equity shareholders do not receive any fixed income every year; it is dependent on the profits of the company. Hence, there is a risk involved in holding equity shares as compared to debt capital. Therefore the equity shareholders require more return as compensation to the extra risk borne by them. On the factors discussed above, debt financing would seem more attractive as compared to equity financing. But decision cannot be made solely on the cost factor. One also has to look into the risk involved in different sources of financing. Since there is a fixed obligation every year towards interest payment, it is considered to be more risky than financing through equity on which no risk is involved. Thus, a company has to decide upon the level of debt on the basis of the risk it can undertake. Eugene, Houston (2007:1).The following ste ps involved in decision making process are: Existing capital structure: One has to evaluate the existing capital structure. In case the company has too much debt already it is not advisable to issue more debt. It can also maintain the existing debt equity ratio or change the ratio. Dividend payout policy: The dividend payout ratio should be decided be the firm, so as to maintain the same every year. This is because fluctuating dividend payout ratio would reduce the confidence of the shareholders towards the company. Effect of return: The company has to analyze the effect on return because of the cost of capital. It has to ensure that it is able to earn the desire level of return of the investors. Effect of return: In order to reduce the cost of the capital a firm might take debt equity mix. However, it should first analyze the risk involved in using debt as a source of capital. Effect on cost of capital: The effect of desired level of debt and equity on the cost of capital of the company should be evaluated. Excess debt can lead to increase in cost of capital after a certain point of time because of the high risk involved. These decisions should be based after careful study of the market. The risk appetite, the required rate of return of the shareholders, the effect on market value of the shares due to change in the capital structure of the company should be studied. Hence, these factors have to be taken into consideration in order to arrive at a sound decision. b) The investment proposal involves an initial investment of 3,000,000 along with cost of forecasting of 100,000. The proposal is expected to be financed at the existing debt-equity ratio of 2:3. It is assumed that the return required by equity investors is 10.5% (real). Therefore nominal return (inflation adjusted) expected would be 10.5% + 5% (inflation) that is 15.5%. The rate of interest payable on corporate bonds (debt) is 6% p.a. We have to now compute the weighted average cost of capital
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Police Case Scenarios - Essay Example Taking the case where the two police officers were on a patrol on high Ã¢â¬â crime area, the officers were in a position and had the right to arrest the passenger. First was to make the rights to known to the passenger by telling them that they had the right to keep quiet, and secondly elaborate to the passenger why he or she was to remain silent. The reason to this was because any word could be used against the suspect who was the passenger in a court of law. After conducting the arrest, the officers were to explain to the suspect of the importance of having an attorney. The state would appoint one for the suspect to represent him or her in the jury or court of law in case the suspect could not afford an attorney. The fact that the woman leaning on the window was walking away was enough sign that whatever activity that was going on in and outside the car might not be legal. When the police officers got closer to the car, the passenger acted suspiciously and began to fidget and shove the hand downwards. There was suspicion bearing in mind that the woman leaning at the window had walked away. The police officers were right to present the passengerÃ¢â¬â¢s motion to suppress the seized evidence as evidence to the court. At arrival, the passenger shoved down the hands. Although there is circumstantial evidence, it will still be relied upon because of the nature in which the officers took the evidence. The series of events that occurred from the beginning make it circumstantial combined with physical evidence because cocaine was in the car. The officers made a judgment quickly to tell the suspect to put the hands where they are visible. The judgment was after the suspect shoved the hands downwards and complied only after the police officer drew his gun and gave the command. The police officer who made the arrest formed the correct opinion because it was a possible fact that maybe the suspect was reaching out for a gun, and the hands were
Monday, October 28, 2019
Snow White Gender Roles Essay The story of Snow White begins as all other fairy tales. The lovely queen bares a beautiful little girl but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get the chance to see her grow up. Snow Whites father remarried a beautiful woman and she just knew she was the most beautiful woman ever. Snow White became older and her beauty began to show more and more as the days went by, more beauty then the queen had. Of course the queen became very upset with this and ordered that Snow White was killed so that she can take back her place as the prettiest in the land. The hunter found Snow White in the woods but he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t kill her. He told her to run away and to never come back home and gave the queen a pigÃ¢â¬â¢s heart instead. Snow mad her way to a little cottage and stayed there until the queen found out what happened she found her and poisoned her. End the end the queen died and Snow was saved by her prince and rode off into the sunset. Now in this story there are many malesÃ¢â¬â¢ roles and only two females and they have many roles they each portray in a fairy-tale. Snow WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s gender roles included; the evil queen, the hero, and the damsel in distress. The queen is usually mean throughout the entire story, but in this one she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t always this way. When snow white was little the queen was a somewhat nice/decent person until she Johnson pg.2 realized her step daughter looked better than her. Now in reality this is possible maybe not in the since of the step mother killing the child but getting rid of them. They more envy she gives off the more disturbing she becomes because she is no longer focused on her on wellbeing but hurting someone else. Sometimes females get so carried up with what other girls are doing trying to make them look bad but they forget all about taking care of themselves. The queen thought that killing snow white would make her life easier but it only got worse every time she tried until she met her death. Women get to the point where trying to make someone else suffers and end being the one hurt in the end because they put too much effort. The hero in this story would be of course the handsome prince who saves little snow white and brings her back to life. In reality a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s hero is not necessarily someone who saves our live but the one who is there in our time of need. The prince knew nothing of snow white until he seen her in the glass coffin. He only shows up when she needs help kind of like now when a woman is need sometimes a nice man just comes along to help and to make our day better. The seven dwarfs were like family to snow. They gave her somewhere to stay and food to eat as long as she does the chores. In life if you have an issue there is always a family member that will take you and help you out through those hard times. Now as far as snow white herself would be the damsel in distress. A beautiful young lady who has someone out to get her but then is rescued by the man of her dreams. In her role there is nothing she can do except run away and let other want to they just were never taught to do so. A royal persons role in life is stand there give orders and to look nice. Therefore they donÃ¢â¬â¢t learn the basic roles of survival. So with the descriptions of all the characters we now see that the role of the men in this story is to protect Johnson pg. 3 roles of the women were to look pretty and do no outside work. The narrativeÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view of snow white was kind of hard to understand but as I continued to read I understood exactly what he/she was trying to say. The witch from the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s view was that she grew to be so evil is because snow became so beautiful so fast, she thought that everyone else would forget all about her and that she would never be loved again. The more the story went on the more jealous the queen got. It even got to the point to where she changed her identity just to set snow up for death. The narrator makes the queen seem like the absolute worst person on earth but she actually is just like any other woman who felt someone is threating her territory and took action to stop it. Snow White is supposed to be the typical princess who picks out the pretty dresses and waits for her handsome prince to come sweep her off her feet. The narrator describes her as the princess who has to work for what she wants. Princesses donÃ¢â¬â¢t run away from the castle because their step mother is trying to kill them. Snow had to hide herself in order to live. She had to find a home, food, and some way to support her until she got on her feet or found the prince sheÃ¢â¬â¢s been looking for. The narrator described snow as a hard working young lady. She cooked, cleaned, and with the help of the animals she even redecorated the dwarfÃ¢â¬â¢s home. The prince in the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view is the one who knew what he was looking for he just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know where to look for it until that day he found the little house sitting in the woods not knowing that he would find the love of his life lying in a glass casket. Although he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t talked about much in this story, the narrator viewed him as brave young man who saved the most fairly of them all, and he was. Now the dwarfs in the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view were Johnson pg. 4 snowÃ¢â¬â¢s little helpers. Even though she found them first and kind of took over their home, they were still willing to let her in. They were sort of like her foster parents, how they looked after her and cared for her. Snow White has many descriptions on the actions that both sex in the story. For instance when the prince found snow she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t in your typical big puffy ball gown dancing around the room with other women and she just so happen to stand out him. She was lying dead in a coffin made of glass and he fell in love with her there. When someone actually thinks about a prince finding his princess they donÃ¢â¬â¢t see him randomly going into the woods to find a coffin with a beautiful young lady lying their lifeless. She is supposed to be alive waiting on him to come to her home and take her as his wife. Princesses are to dressed in the most exquisite dresses and the long hair flowing down her back having everything she wants, snow wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t like that. Snow had on the simple little dress with short hair and in the story it seems like she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually get everything she wanted. She went through hell to get the man of her dreams from running from the hunter to the poison apple, even losing her mother when she a little girl. In society today the royal court isnÃ¢â¬â¢t really like the story at all. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t really have to work or do chores. Snow had to clean up after seven dirty men every day, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not a typical princess. Also when the queen dies and the king does remarry he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just put his child aside and worry only about his new wife. SnowÃ¢â¬â¢s father isnÃ¢â¬â¢t mentioned in this story really at all as if he just left soon as the mother died. Kind of like now how some kids start off with their father then one day he just up and disappears. The queen hiring someone to kill her stepchild, that Johnson pg. 5 doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen in the world today. The queen doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really have the power to order someone be killed because itÃ¢â¬â¢s the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s job. Snow found the dwarfs home in the woods and just walked in and started cleaning and eating, basically making herself at home. The dwarfÃ¢â¬â¢s come home expecting their home to be exactly the way it was when the left not for it to be cleaned, food cooked and for a strange woman to be in as if she belong there. In society today she would have went to jail for breaking and entering. The roles in this story are completely different not only in the world today, but from any other fairy there is today. The women actually took charge and worked for what they wanted. And as for the men they set back and watch the women proceed through out day to day making sure everything that needs to be done gets done, not your everyday royal family.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Blushing and Physiological Arousability in Social Phobia Introduction This paper will provide a critique of the article titled Ã¢â¬Å"Blushing and Physiological Arousability in Social Phobia,Ã¢â¬ (Gerlach et al., 2001) located in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (Vol. 110, No. 2). Blushing is defined as: Ã¢â¬Å"to become red in the face especially from shame or embarrassment. Ã¢â¬ It is believed that blushing involves physiological, behavioral, and cognitive factors which react with one another. The actual cause of one blushing is physiological; the amount of blood in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s face increases causing the amplification of a red hue in the blush region. The blush region is defined to be the face, forehead, ears, neck, and sometimes the upper part of the chest. The DSM-IV defines social phobia as marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur. Since blushing occurs when one is embarrassed, the researchers hoped to find a link between blushing and the reasons of in social phobic persons. Hypothesis The researches hypothesized that persons with social phobia who complain of blushing would show more blushing as opposed to those who are social phobic without complaints of blushing or the controls. The researches came to this hypothesis because it is believed that if one is aware of their uncontrollable blushing, they have an increased awareness cognitively towards their blushing problem. In turn, one may exaggerate the amount of blushing they are experiencing which in turn will increase the actual physiological process heightening the blush level. Also, because the relation between heart rate and phobic anxiety exists, it was also hypothesized there would be a difference in heart rate between the subgroups. The researchers believe that heart rate reliably shows the amount of phobic anxiety one is enduring. Therefore, it is believed that the participants who complain of blushing will also have a higher heart rate compared to the other two subgroups. Participants The study consisted of 44 participants (54% female, 46% male). The mean age of the participants of all three subgroups was 39.9 years of age. The mean years of education among the participants were 16.23 years. The participants all originated within Silicon Valley and the rest of the San Francisco Bay Area in California. All were highly educated and economical... ...t even though the intended reason for the study did not follow through, the found evidence could be helpful for future studies. Researchers in the future studying this matter would no longer have to test heart rate palpitations; they will now know it does vary on the diagnosis of the person. I believe the basis of the study was good, but it was carried out in a hurried state. The participants and time spent on testing were both minimal. I think that the subject was unique and would help others studying this factor because it is one that people are curious about. A physiological change by external stimuli in a person is always a topic of concern and curiosity. Surgery has been suggested to those with blushing problems to help lessen the obvious nature of it. As this study and the researchers have suggested, one should be wary of such surgery. They found there is no apparent evidence stating that one with social phobia blushes more than one without. I think this piece of advice in itself shows that this study has had an impact in the scientific world and the human population. Merriam-Webster Dictionary Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 110, No. 2. (2001) Page248. Blushing and Physiological Arousability in Social Phobia Essay Blushing and Physiological Arousability in Social Phobia Introduction This paper will provide a critique of the article titled Ã¢â¬Å"Blushing and Physiological Arousability in Social Phobia,Ã¢â¬ (Gerlach et al., 2001) located in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (Vol. 110, No. 2). Blushing is defined as: Ã¢â¬Å"to become red in the face especially from shame or embarrassment. Ã¢â¬ It is believed that blushing involves physiological, behavioral, and cognitive factors which react with one another. The actual cause of one blushing is physiological; the amount of blood in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s face increases causing the amplification of a red hue in the blush region. The blush region is defined to be the face, forehead, ears, neck, and sometimes the upper part of the chest. The DSM-IV defines social phobia as marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur. Since blushing occurs when one is embarrassed, the researchers hoped to find a link between blushing and the reasons of in social phobic persons. Hypothesis The researches hypothesized that persons with social phobia who complain of blushing would show more blushing as opposed to those who are social phobic without complaints of blushing or the controls. The researches came to this hypothesis because it is believed that if one is aware of their uncontrollable blushing, they have an increased awareness cognitively towards their blushing problem. In turn, one may exaggerate the amount of blushing they are experiencing which in turn will increase the actual physiological process heightening the blush level. Also, because the relation between heart rate and phobic anxiety exists, it was also hypothesized there would be a difference in heart rate between the subgroups. The researchers believe that heart rate reliably shows the amount of phobic anxiety one is enduring. Therefore, it is believed that the participants who complain of blushing will also have a higher heart rate compared to the other two subgroups. Participants The study consisted of 44 participants (54% female, 46% male). The mean age of the participants of all three subgroups was 39.9 years of age. The mean years of education among the participants were 16.23 years. The participants all originated within Silicon Valley and the rest of the San Francisco Bay Area in California. All were highly educated and economical... ...t even though the intended reason for the study did not follow through, the found evidence could be helpful for future studies. Researchers in the future studying this matter would no longer have to test heart rate palpitations; they will now know it does vary on the diagnosis of the person. I believe the basis of the study was good, but it was carried out in a hurried state. The participants and time spent on testing were both minimal. I think that the subject was unique and would help others studying this factor because it is one that people are curious about. A physiological change by external stimuli in a person is always a topic of concern and curiosity. Surgery has been suggested to those with blushing problems to help lessen the obvious nature of it. As this study and the researchers have suggested, one should be wary of such surgery. They found there is no apparent evidence stating that one with social phobia blushes more than one without. I think this piece of advice in itself shows that this study has had an impact in the scientific world and the human population. Merriam-Webster Dictionary Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 110, No. 2. (2001) Page248.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
The basic premise behind the ninth commandment is truth, whether it is truth in deed, truthful speech or honest thoughts.Ã If we take the meaning of the commandment further and interpret the words to mean that a person should not lie, then we can understand better how this commandment might impact our daily life, especially in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern environment where deception, and white lies appear to be condoned by our western society. The ninth commandment requires for each individual to be honest in his or her dealings with others, but analysis of the term Ã¢â¬Å"lyingÃ¢â¬ reveals that there is more to being truthful than accurate reporting.The Oxford Modern English Dictionary (1996) defines Ã¢â¬Å"truthÃ¢â¬ as being Ã¢â¬Å"the quality or state of being true or truthfulÃ¢â¬ (p. 1114) and Ã¢â¬Å"truthfulÃ¢â¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"habitually telling the truthÃ¢â¬ (p.1114).Ã By comparison the definition of the term Ã¢â¬Å"lyingÃ¢â¬ in the same dictionary is listed as Ã¢â ¬Å"part of a lieÃ¢â¬ ¦deceitful, falseÃ¢â¬ (p.595) where Ã¢â¬Å"LieÃ¢â¬ is described as Ã¢â¬Å"an intentionally false statementÃ¢â¬ (p. 573).Ã From these interpretations it is easy to reach the conclusion that the definition of both truth and lying is steeped more in the intention of the individual rather than individual acts or words spoken.Brevard Childs (1974) believed that the original idea behind the ninth commandment was a legal one, rather than an ethical one, in that he translated the original text to mean that a person should not tell lies in a court of law (Childs, 1974), however the more modern viewpoint on the meaning of the commandment appears to be related to individual accountability and a desire to live a life of truth (St. John in the Wilderness, 2001, [online]).There are many different ways a person can lie including withholding the truth, slandering another person or action, or telling white lies and despite ethical discussions to the contrary all of these actions are considered untruthful from a biblical perspective.Ã For example in Leviticus 19:11, we are told, Ã¢â¬Å"you shall not steal, you shall not deal falsely, and you will not lie to one anotherÃ¢â¬ (NRSV).Ã Later in the same chapter we are again told, Ã¢â¬Å"you shall not go around as a slanderer among your peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Leviticus 19:16). These are just two of the copious number of biblical references that can be found that encourage each individual to be a truthful person, but how relevant is this truth in modern society?Terence Fretheim (1991) interpreted the ninth commandment to convey a foundation for community and social living.Ã He wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"unless there is an arena in which there is public confidence that social reality will be reliably described and reportedÃ¢â¬ (Fretheim, p.848), the concept of community could not exist.Ã Ã Blatnik (2004) corroborates that idea and goes on to say, Ã¢â¬Å"there is no community on the face of public liesÃ¢â¬ (p.3).Ã Blatnik (2004) also mentions verses in Ephesians that point towards the idea that Ã¢â¬Å"we are bound to each other in a way that a lie in one place, a lie at one level, a lie by one person, is like a ripple in a pond Ã¢â¬â the whole pond is ultimately affectedÃ¢â¬ (p.3).Walter Brueggemann (1994) wrote in his book that the ninth commandment is Ã¢â¬Å"a recognition that community life is not possible unless there is an arena in which there is public confidence that social reality will be reliably described and reportedÃ¢â¬ (p.26).Ã He believed that not only was truth an important part of a just and fair legal system, but that truth should be evident in all forms of public interaction.Ã For example the modern idea that skewing the truth in the advertisement of products in mass media forums is an accepted part of society, but essentially if public truth cannot reflect public reality then an important part of society is undermined and we as members of this society tend, over time, to distrust the messages we get from mass media sources.In his book Commandments of Compassion, Keenan (1999) suggest that as a society we need to Ã¢â¬Å"create a space where truth can be toldÃ¢â¬ (p.4). He believes that truth should be evident in personal relationships, family relationships and public dealings we have with other members of our community.Ã Unfortunately this level of truth can only be created if all members of society were totally honest with each other and as it is not possible for us as human beings, to read the thoughts of another person, it is often difficult to tell if a person we are dealing with has the same commitment towards living a truthful life as we ourselves would like to have.John Timmerman (1997) also wrote about how to be truthful in all of our relationships, both personal and public. He emphasized the different ways we as individuals could achieve this level of truthfulness and suggested that if we were caref ul in the words we spoke so that we did not give another person the wrong impression, and combined this with attentive listening to another person, then these actions could increase our own individual ability to be truthful at all times.Ã Timmerman also noted that the idea of promises were almost a sacred act, in that as we believe in the promises from God, so we should ensure that we only make promises we can keep (Timmerman, 1997).According to John Ritenbaugh (1997) lying is rife in our communities.Ã His article mentions surveys that show that students lie to their parents about 50% of the time, that people in personal relationships lie about 30 percent of the time to their partner, while 12% of four million Americans in the job market had lost their jobs because they had misleading information on their resumes (Ritenbaugh, 1997).Ã He suggested that the reason lying was so prevalent in our society was because we tend to use other terms for lying, such as Ã¢â¬Å"exaggerati ngÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"inaccuracyÃ¢â¬ to describe the untruths.We seem as a society to accept that politicians are up to no good, that a salesman is probably Ã¢â¬Å"putting us onÃ¢â¬ and that big corporations must be doing something illegal because they make so much money.Ã The fact that these beliefs have permeated our social fabric to such a degree that these thoughts are commonplace shows just how little truth we expect from others in our daily lives.Ã This fact alone would suggest that because we do not expect others to tell us the truth, we might be less likely to be truthful ourselves.Ã It would seem that much of society is based on the idea that Ã¢â¬Ëeveryone else is doing itÃ¢â¬ so therefore we can absolve ourselves of being accountable and honest in our own dealings with others.The Bible gives us countless examples of what it means to be truthful.Ã Deuteronomy 32:4 says Ã¢â¬Å"He is the rock, His work is perfect; for all His ways are justice, a God of tr uth and without injustice; righteous and upright is HeÃ¢â¬ (NSRV). The teachings from Jesus also contain ideas on how to be truthful, especially in terms of the role model he became for other people.Ã Jesus was an example of a person who lived by his words on a daily basis, and it is through his example that we can see what changes we might need to put in place in our own lives, to be a better and more truthful person.A Christian student goes to a Christian college with the expectation that the people who share the campus with them are going to live by the same standards as themselves.Ã One of these expectation is that the other students, the tutors and even the administration staff of the college will all want to abide by the ten commandments and sometimes it can be bit of a shock to us to find that not only are there countless people in general society that fail to live by the commandments on a daily basis, but that some of the people in the college are also failing to li ve by the high standards set by Jesus Christ.However, it is my personal opinion that when it comes to attendance at a Christian educational institution that rather than condemn or alienate those students who might lie to us, or fail the commandments in some way or another, that we need to be forgiving and use the positive Christian influence of the college to help understand why some people find it difficult to be truthful in voice and deed and encourage these people back onto a Christian path in life.Ã We need to heed the words by Keenan (1999) mentioned earlier that we need to create the space where a person can feel comfortable enough to tell the truth.One of the main reasons people lie to others is based on their own fear of being judged by another person.Ã Most of us feel the need to make a good impression on others, so we feel we are not doing any harm by just omitting a few pertinent facts, or telling a few white lies to make ourselves appear better in a public light. A lthough the intention behind these actions may not be malicious, any form of untruth is a lie, and the only way we can be truthful people, and keep the ninth commandment is to be totally honest in all our dealings, both personal and professional.As students we are all well aware of how easy it is to be tempted to appear Ã¢â¬Å"betterÃ¢â¬ in the way we behave, especially among our peers (Christian and non-Christian), but as Christians we are also aware of how important it is for us to live by higher standards than other non-Christian people might be prepared to live.Ã We need to remember that we are all sinners in some way or another, which is why I think that it is so important, when we do become aware that one of our Christian classmates is having problems being honest in their dealings, that we help rather than condemn him.Ã For example one of our classmates might be telling Ã¢â¬Å"white liesÃ¢â¬ to his parents because his grades are not as high as they should be.Even though we all learn the importance of being truthful in all of our thoughts, words and actions, it is not our place to ignore or shun that failing student Ã¢â¬â it is not our place to judge him.Ã Rather we should help him in spiritual ways by studying scriptures that are appropriate for the situation, and in practical ways by offering to help him study harder so that he is able to get a grade he can be proud of.Ã Blatnik (2004) told us that just one lie by one individual in a community can affect the whole community, but if we as Christian individuals hold fast to our own truths then through the power of prayer and understanding we can help our fellow students stay true to the teachings of Jesus Christ.The ninth commandment tells us we should not bear false witness against our neighbour Ã¢â¬â what it is asking us to do is to make truth the foundation for our lives here on earth.Ã Only when we are completely truthful in all of our dealings with other people around us c an we have an honest relationship with God, and that fact applies to all of us, not only as Christians, not only as college students, but also as members of the human race.ReferencesBlatnik, D.J., (2004).Ã The Ninth Commandment. Second Presbyterian Church Sermons, accessed online at http://www.2prelex.org/S040418.htm October 2, 2005Brueggemann, W., (1994).Ã The Book of Exodus, in The New InterpreterÃ¢â¬â¢s Bible, Vol. 1.Ã Nashville:Ã Abingdon PressChilds, B.S., (1974).Ã The book of Exodus: A critical, theological commentary.Ã Louisville: Westminster Press.Fretheim, T.E., (1991).Ã Exodus: Interpretation, a Bible commentary for teaching and preaching, Louisville: John Knox Press.Keenan, J.F., (1999).Ã Commandments of Compassion.Ã Franklin, WI: S.J. Sheed & WardOxford Modern Dictionary (Second Edition), (1996), New York: Oxford University Press.Ritenbaugh, J.W., (December 1997).Ã The Ninth Commandment, Forerunner, Personal. Charlotte, NC:Ã Church of t he Great GodSt. John in the Wilderness [online] (2001).Ã The Ten Commandments: 9. You shall not answer against your neighbor as a false witness.Ã Accessed at http://www.stjohnadulted.org October 2 2005.Timmerman, J.H., (1997).Ã Do we still need the Ten Commandments? A fresh look at GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Laws of Love.Ã Minneapolis: Augsburg