Wednesday, November 27, 2019
The Great Depression and the New Deal Essays The Great Depression and the New Deal Essay The Great Depression and the New Deal Essay Question 1 To fight the Depression, Hoover took a standard Republican route and Roosevelt claimed the American people needed a New Deal. Use specific ideas and programs to compare and contrast Hoovers and Roosevelts approached and evaluate the success. During the Roaring Twenties, the American people seemed to live in a fantasy world of wealth and luxury. The economy was booming due to little government interference and workers were receiving higher wages and began to receive welfare from their employers. Citizens could choose from new consumer products, such as refrigerators, washing machines, and the automobile, which revolutionized the way people traveled in the United States. However, this newfound prosperity would be short lived. At the end of the Roaring Twenties, the American people witnessed the worst economic depression in history and they were apart of it. Unemployment rates skyrocketed through the roof and people were losing millions of dollars after the stock market cr ash in 1929. After having little regulation of the economy during the 1920s, the American people were in desperate need of government assistance. Current President Hoover followed his conservative approach that he had used throughout his term and chose to do little or nothing about the depression, thinking that it would end shortly. The Great Depression did not end quickly and the American people were in need of a strong leader who was willing to take drastic action. The United States chose Franklin Delano Roosevelt to lead America away from depression and his New Deals would return America to its prosperous times. To being with, Herbert Hoover and the majority of the American people thought that the depression would pass in a short period of time. The United States had a few depressions during the 1800s and only two of them lasted longer than a year. However, this depression would last from October of 1929 to the entrance of World War II b
Saturday, November 23, 2019
George C Marshall essays Starting at a very young age George Catlett showed the attributes of a general and leader. Growing up in Uniontown Pennsylvania under the strict rule of his father, George Catlett Marshall Sr. and his mother, The Marshall plan encouraged European nations to work together to achieve economic recovery after World War II. In June 1947, the United States agreed to give aid to Europe if the countries would meet to decide what they needed. The official name of the plan was the European Recovery Program. It was called the Marshall Plan because George Marshall, the Secretary of State at the time first suggested it. The Plan first took action in April 1948; when Congress established the (ECA) Economic Cooperation Administration to administer foreign aid. Seventeen nations formed the (OEEC) Organization for European Economic Cooperation to assist the ECA and develop cooperation among its members. The United States sent about $13 billion in food, machinery, and other products to Europe. Marshall was dedicated to building a strong defense, but he also labored to find peaceful solutions to world conflicts. In December 1953, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in recognition of his contributions to the economic rehabilitation of Europe. He was the first soldier to win that honor. Through the words of Winston Churchill "During my long and close association with successive American administrations, there are few men whose qualities of mind and character have impressed me so deeply as those of General Marshall. He is a great American, but he is far more than that. In war he was as wise and understanding in counsel as he was resolute in action. In peace he was the architect who planned the restoration of our battered European economy and, at the same time, labored tirelessly to establish a system of Western defense. He has always fought victoriously against defeatism, discouragement, and disillusion. Succeeding generations must ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Architecture and Strategic Management - Essay Example (Hale, 2000; P 5) Clustering distribution centers in a single geographic area is among the new trends. There is also a move towards transportation specialization, such as companies that depend on substantial parcel air transport. Labor availability and technology advances are factors driving many companies to consolidate their distribution and structural systems into fewer but larger, regional facilities. However, not all companies are consolidating their distribution centers: in many areas, the consolidation trend itself is producing a new generation of smaller, local distribution centers. Experts say that new logistical handling systems and greater outsourcing-in particular, the increased use of third-party logistics providers-seem to be driving this trend. This trend has had a large bearing on how architects are being perceived. With the advent of management as a wholesome science that has trickled into every industry and profession, architects are now expected to handle the managerial aspects of construction and design. One of the major implications for this is cost control and financial projection, health and safety management as well as development control. When involved in a project, the major fo... When involved in a project, the major focus is on the economics and what can be achieved within a given budget. Passing this down to the architects has various dimensions to it. The creative part can be better coordinated and decided in the initial stages so as to avoid chaos later. The demerit of this is that the focus might shift from the creative to the strategic management options where some architects might be ill equipped to handle such responsibilities. The solution to such a problem is a short course or orientation program in financial and development management when educating or selecting architects. Incident Command System for High Rise Buildings Risk is also a major part of the strategic management and development part of a structure. The above diagram is a depiction of an example of sectorisation for a high rise building. The sectorisation for high rise buildings must consist of the optimum deployment and utilization of resources. Managing a high rise building is a matter of creating sectors so as to give out commands easily and smoothly in case of strategic, tactical and operational importance. The sectors for operation must include: Vulnerability assessment & intrusion detection systems Risk assessment & risk management Backups & business continuity planning Disaster recovery planning Computer incident response teams Digital investigation & incident post-mortem Privacy & anonymity in cyberspace; censorship & content filtering Management responsibilities & liabilities The future of information assurance Professional development The Harrow Court Incident The Harrow Court Incident refers to the tragic chain of events where two firefighters - Firefighter Wornham and Firefighter Miller - lost their lives on the 2nd of February, 2005. The
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Social anxiety - Research Paper Example People experiencing from social phobia are not afraid of fear, rather they are afraid of what people think about them and how people perceive them. This fear is mostly associated with the negative perception or the belief that people perceive negatively about the person being evaluated. Due to this fear, individuals believe that they are going to be negatively assessed by others, will not be acceptable by others, will be bullied and people might disapprove them. Due to these perceptions, an individual may face the problem of social anxiety. Individuals living in US aging between 18 and 54 are most commonly affected by this disorder, around 3.7% of the total population which accounts for 5.3 million Americans are said to be experiencing this disease (Kahn, 2001, p.51). Twice the number of women are said to be effected by this disorder as compared to men but higher number of men seek assistance to solve this issue (Kahn, 2001, p.51). Mostly an individual is affected by this disease dur ing childhood; individuals who cross the age of 25 have less chances of developing this disorder. Social anxiety is one of the top most common forms of disorders experienced by US. Body During the 1980s, social anxiety was realized as a mental disposition by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder; this realization took place much later than other forms of mental issues (Kearney, 2005, p.11). Heavy amount of research and study has not focused on this disease but quite a lot of physicians and researchers are working towards this social and mental problem. Researchers have been able to identify two forms of social phobia, though it is unclear whether both these problems are similar or distinct. The first kind of social phobia is one in which people are afraid of conducting one of the several forms of social actions such as speaking in front of the public and working or eating while around people. The second division of social phobia is recognized as generalized social phobia, people experiencing this form of social phobia are afraid of conducting all sorts of social activities (Kearney, 2005, p.12). Media has paid attention to social phobia and has stated that pharmaceutical companies are trying to sell medication that is used to solve the issue of shyness and they believe that shyness is not a medical condition (Gambrill, 2012, p.67). The issue of pharmaceutical companies operating in an unethical way to make profits should not be mixed with the issue of social phobia as everyday several individuals throughout the world along with US experience this metal disorder and are not able to complete their social obligations. An individual should not be labeled as someone who is experiencing any disease if they are going through emotional changes that are important for their life. But proper importance needs to be assigned to someone who is actually experiencing certain mental issues. Social phobia or social anxiety itself is a label given to those who are actually suffering from these issues and these labeling aids them in obtaining help from physicians and gain support from others who are experiencing the same challenge. Experiencing social anxiety is not a huge issue, thus others need to accept such people and provide support to them and people suffering from this disorder want to alter the way they are living their lives. It is a myth that socially anxious people do not prefer to be social or are against
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Political philosophy Essay The concept of social contract theory is that in the beginning man lived in the state of nature. They had no government and there was no law to regulate them. There were hardships and oppression on the sections of the society. To overcome from these hardships they entered into two agreements which are:- 1. ?Pactum Unionis? ; and 2. ?Pactum Subjectionis?. By the first pact of unionis, people sought protection of their lives and property. As, a result of it a society was formed where people undertook to respect each other and live in peace and harmony. By the second pact of subjectionis, people united together and pledged to obey an authority and surrendered the whole or part of their freedom and rights to an authority. The authority guaranteed everyone protection of life, property and to a certain extent liberty. Thus, they must agree to establish society by collectively and reciprocally renouncing the rights they had against one another in the State of Nature and they must imbue some one person or assembly of persons with the authority and power to enforce the initial contract. In other words, to ensure their escape from the State of Nature, they must both agree to live together under common laws, and create an enforcement mechanism for the social contract and the laws that constitute it. Thus, the authority or the government or the sovereign or the state came into being because of the two agreements. Analysis of the theory of Social Contract by Thomas Hobbes ? Thomas Hobbes theory of Social Contract appeared for the first time in Leviathan published in the year 1651 during the Civil War in Britain. Thomas Hobbes? legal theory is based on ? Social contract?. According to him, prior to Social Contract, man lived in the State of Nature. Man? s life in the State of NATURE was one of fear and selfishness. Man lived in chaotic condition of constant fear. Life in the State of Nature was ? solitary? , ? poor? , ? nasty? , ? brutish? , and ? short?. ? Man has a natural desire for security and order. In order to secure self- protection and self-preservation, and to avoid misery and pain, man entered Page 2 of 7 into a contract. This idea of self-preservation and self-protection are inherent in man? s nature and in order to achieve this, they voluntarily surrendered all their rights and freedoms to some authority by this contract who must command obedience. As a result of this contract, the mightiest authority is to protect and preserve their lives and property. This led to the emergence of the institution of the ? ruler? or ? monarch? , who shall be the absolute head. Subjects had no rights against the absolute authority or the sovereign and he is to be obeyed in all situations however bad or unworthy he might be. However, Hobbes placed moral obligations on the sovereign who shall be bound by natural law. ? Hence, it can be deduced that, Hobbes was the supporter of absolutism. In the opinion of Hobbes, ? law is dependent upon the sanction of the sovereign and the Government without sword are but words and of no strength to secure a man at all?. He therefore, reiterated that civil law is the real law because it is commanded and enforced by the sovereign. Thus, he upheld the principle of ? Might is always Right?. ? Hobbes thus infers from his mechanistic theory of human nature that humans are necessarily and exclusively self-interested. All men pursue only what they perceive to be in their own individually considered best interests. They respond mechanistically by being drawn to that which they desire and repelled by that to which they are averse. In addition to being exclusively self-interested, Hobbes also argues that human beings are reasonable. They have in them the rational capacity to pursue their desires as efficiently and maximally as possible. From these premises of human nature, Hobbes goes on to construct a provocative and compelling argument for which they ought to be willing to submit themselves to political authority. He did this by imagining persons in a situation prior to the establishment of society, the State of Nature. ? Hobbes impels subjects to surrender all their rights and vest all liberties in the sovereign for preservation of peace, life and prosperity of the subjects. It is in this way the natural law became a moral guide or directive to the sovereign for preservation of the natural rights of the subjects. For Hobbes all law is dependent upon the sanction of the sovereign. All real law is civil law, the law commanded and Page 3 of 7 enforced by the sovereign and are brought into the world for nothing else but to limit the natural liberty of particular men, in such a manner, as they might not hurt but to assist one another and join together against a common enemy. He advocated for an established order. Hence, Individualism, materialism, utilitarianism and absolutions are inter-woven in the theory of Hobbes. Analysis of the theory of Social Contract by John Locke ? John Locke theory of Social Contract is different than that of Hobbes. According to him, man lived in the State of Nature, but his concept of the State of Nature is different as contemplated by Hobbesian theory. Locke? s view about the state of nature is not as miserable as that of Hobbes. It was reasonably good and enjoyable, but the property was not secure. He considered State of Nature as a ? Golden Age?. It was a state of ? peace, goodwill, mutual assistance, and preservation?. In that state of nature, men had all the rights which nature could give them. Locke justifies this by saying that in the State of Nature, the natural condition of mankind was a state of perfect and complete liberty to conduct one? s life as one best sees fit. It was free from the interference of others. In that state of nature, all were equal and independent. This does not mean, however, that it was a state of license. It was one not free to do anything at all one pleases, or even anything that one judges to be in one? s interest. The State of Nature, although a state wherein there was no civil authority or government to punish people for transgressions against laws, was not a state without morality. The State of Nature was pre-political, but it was not pre- moral. Persons are assumed to be equal to one another in such a state, and therefore equally capable of discovering and being bound by the Law of Nature. So, the State Ã Nature was a ? state of liberty? , where persons are free to pursue their own interests and plans, free from interference and, because of the Law of Nature and the restrictions that it imposes upon persons, it is relatively peaceful. ? Property plays an essential role in Locke? s argument for civil government and the contract that establishes it. According to Locke, private property is created when a person mixes his labour with the raw materials of nature. Given the implications of the Law of Nature, there are limits as to how much property one can own: one is not Page 4 of 7allowed to take so more from nature than oneself can use, thereby leaving others without enough for themselves, because nature is given to all of mankind for its common subsistence. One cannot take more than his own fair share. Property is the linchpin of Locke? s argument for the social contract and civil government because it is the protection of their property, including their property in their own bodies, that men seek when they decide to abandon the State of Nature. ? John Locke considered property in the State of Nature as insecure because of three conditions; they are:- 1. Absence of established law; 2. Absence of impartial Judge; and 3. Absence of natural power to execute natural laws. ? Thus, man in the State of Nature felt need to protect their property and for the purpose of protection of their property, men entered into the ? Social Contract?. Under the contract, man did not surrender all their rights to one single individual, but they surrendered only the right to preserve / maintain order and enforce the law of nature. The individual retained with them the other rights, i. e. , right to life, liberty and estate because these rights were considered natural and inalienable rights of men.? Having created a political society and government through their consent, men then gained three things which they lacked in the State of Nature: laws, judges to adjudicate laws, and the executive power necessary to enforce these laws. Each man therefore gives over the power to protect himself and punish transgressors of the Law of Nature to the government that he has created through the compact. ? According to Locke, the purpose of the Government and law is to uphold and protect the natural rights of men. So long as the Government fulfils this purpose, the laws given by it are valid and binding but, when it ceases to fulfil it, then the laws would have no validity and the Government can be thrown out of power. In Lockes view, unlimited sovereignty is contrary to natural law. ? Hence, John Locke advocated the principle of -? a state of liberty; not of license?. Locke advocated a state for the general good of people. He pleaded for a constitutionally limited government. Page 5 of 7 ? Locke, in fact made life, liberty and property, his three cardinal rights, which greatly dominated and influenced the Declaration of American Independence, 1776. Analysis of the theory of Social Contract by Jean Jacques Rousseau ? Jean Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher who gave a new interpretation to the theory of Social Contract in his work The Social Contract and Emile. According to him, social contract is not a historical fact but a hypothetical construction of reason. Prior to the Social Contract, the life in the State of Nature was happy and there was equality among men. As time passed, however, humanity faced certain changes. As the overall population increased, the means by which people could satisfy their needs had to change. People slowly began to live together in small families, and then in small communities. Divisions of labour were introduced, both within and between families, and discoveries and inventions made life easier, giving rise to leisure time. Such leisure time inevitably led people to make comparisons between themselves and others, resulting in public values, leading to shame and envy, pride and contempt. Most importantly however, according to Rousseau, was the invention of private property, which constituted the pivotal moment in humanity? s evolution out of a simple, pure state into one, characterized by greed, competition, vanity, inequality, and vice. For Rousseau the invention of property constitutes humanity? s ? fall from grace? out of the State of Nature. For this purpose, they surrendered their rights not to a single individual but to the community as a whole which Rousseau termed as ? general will?. ? According to Rousseau, the original ? freedom, happiness, equality and liberty? which existed in primitive societies prior to the social contract was lost in the modern civilisation. Through Social Contract, a new form of social organisation- the state was formed to assure and guarantee rights, liberties freedom and equality. The essence of the Rousseau? s theory of General Will is that State and Law were the product of General Will of the people. State and the Laws are made by it and if the government and laws do not conform to ? general will? , they would be discarded. While the individual parts with his natural rights, in return he gets civil liberties such as freedom of speech, equality, assembly, etc. Page 6 of 7 ? The ? General Will? , therefore, for all purposes, was the will of majority citizens to which blind obedience was to be given. The majority was accepted on the belief that majority view is right than minority view. Each individual is not subject to any other individual but to the ? general will? and to obey this is to obey himself. His sovereignty is infallible, indivisible, unrepresentable and illimitable. ? Thus, Rousseau favoured peoples sovereignty. His natural law theory is confined to the freedom and liberty of the individual. For him, State, law, sovereignty, general will, etc. are interchangeable terms. Rousseau? s theory inspired French and American revolutions and given impetus to nationalism. He based his theory of social contract on the principle of ? Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains?. COMPARISION OF THE THEORY OF SOCIAL CONTRACT OF THOMAS HOBBES, JOHN LOCKE AND JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU 1. Hobbes asserts that without subjection to a common power of their rights and freedoms, men are necessarily at war. Locke and Rousseau, on the contrary, set forth the view that the state exists to preserve and protect the natural rights of its citizens. When governments fail in that task, citizens have the right and sometimes the duty to withdraw their support and even to rebel. 2. Hobbes view was that whatever the state does is just. All of society is a direct creation of the state, and a reflection of the will of the ruler. According to Locke, the only important role of the state is to ensure that justice is seen to be done. While Rousseau view is that the State must in all circumstance ensure freedom and liberty of individuals. 3. Hobbes theory of Social Contract supports absolute sovereign without giving any value to individuals, while Locke and Rousseau supports individual than the state or the government. 4. To Hobbes, the sovereign and the government are identical but Rousseau makes a distinction between the two. He rules out a representative form of government. But, Locke does not make any such distinction. Page 7 of 7 5. Rousseau? s view of sovereignty was a compromise between the constitutionalism of Locke and absolutism of Hobbes. CRITICAL APPREHENTION 1. Rousseau propounded that state, law and the government are interchangeable, but this in present senerio is different. Even though government can be overthrown but not the state. A state exists even there is no government. 2. Hobbes concept of absolutism is totally a vague concept in present scenario. Democracy is the need and examples may be taken from Burma and other nations. 3. According to Hobbes, the sovereign should have absolute authority. This is against the rule of law because absolute power in one authority brings arbitrariness. 4. Locke concept of State of nature is vague as any conflict with regard to property always leads to havoc in any society. Hence, there cannot be a society in peace if they have been conflict with regard to property. 5. Locke concept of laissez-faire is not of welfare oriented. Now in present scenario, every state undertake steps to form a welfare state.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Forest Soils on Acid Forest ecosystems are important both ecologically and economically. It is arguable that the most fundamental dynamic of the forest ecosystem is the forest soil. The acidity of forest soils can alter the chemistry, biota, and hydraulics of the soil, and thus, alter the soil formation characteristics and the soil composition. It follows that the acidification of forest soils demands a great deal of research and attention. Forest soils are commonly found to have pH readings of 4-6, even in areas of moderate to low acid deposition (Binkley et al, p. 4). In fact, an abundance of forest vegetation thrives on and stabilizes most forest soils at relatively low pH levels. It seems as though forest ecosystems generally thrive upon strongly acid soils. Though forest soils naturally are acidic, problems can occur when the acidity levels are raised artificially through processes such as acid rain. This paper will investigate the effects of higher than normal acidity and acid deposition in forest soils to gain a greater understanding of current and potential problems to forest soils and ecosystems. It is important to remember when discussing the implications of high acid in forest soils that there are several general factors that will alter acidic effects on soil chemistry, hydrology, biota, and weathering. These factors include soil type, soil sensitivity, and the quantity of precipitation. Texture, structure, grain size, and consistence are all crucial to defining the soil type or series and also to the amount of time soil is exposed to acid deposition. In a particular study on humus degradation based on simulated "acid rains" conducted by Greszta et al. (1991) revealed the extent to which soil type influenced ... ...556-563. Mulder, J., J.J. M. van Grinsven, and N. van Breemen. 1987. Impacts of acid atmospheric deposition on woodland soils in the Netherlands: III. aluminum chemistry. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51: pp. 1640-1646. Rampazzo, N., and W.E.H. Blum. 1992. Changes in chemistry and minerology of forest soils by acid rain. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 61: pp. 209-220. Sharpe, W.E., B.R. Swistock, and D.R. Dewalle. 1992. A greenhouse study of northern red oak seedling growth on two forest soils at different stages of acidification. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 66: pp. 121-133. Singer, M.J., and D.N. Munns. 1996. Soils: An Introduction. Prentice-Hall, Inc. New Jersey. Tamm, C.O., and L. Hallbacken. 1986. Changes in soil pH over a 50-year period under different forest canopies in SW Sweden. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 31: pp. 337 341.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4. 1 Chapter 6 Worksheet/Student 6. 1. 2 Worksheet: Research Laptops, Smartphones, and PDAs Print and complete this worksheet. In this worksheet, you will use the Internet, a newspaper, or a local store to gather information, and then enter the specifications for a laptop, smartphone, and PDA onto this worksheet. What type of equipment do you want? What features are important to you? For example, you may want a laptop that has an 80 GB hard drive and plays DVDs or has built-in wireless capability. You may need a smartphone with Internet access or a PDA that takes pictures.Shop around, and in the table below list the features and cost for a laptop, smartphone, and PDA. Equipment Laptop Computer:MacBook Pro Features ? 2. 6GHz quad-core Intel Core i7 ? Turbo Boost up to 3. 6GHz ? 8GB 1600MHz memory 1 ? 512GB flash storage ? Intel HD Graphics 4000 ? NVIDIA GeForce GT 650M with 1GB of GDDR5 memory 2 ? Built-in battery (7 hours) Cost $2199. 0 Smartp hone:Galaxy S III ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2100 mAh Lithium Ion Battery Dimensions 5. 4Ã¢â¬ x 2. 8Ã¢â¬ x . 3Ã¢â¬ 4. 8Ã¢â¬ ³ (1280Ãâ"720) HD Super AMOLED touchscreen 4. 7 oz 1. 5 GHz dual core processor 16GB or 32GB ROM / 2GB RAM.Supports up to 64GB MicroSD card. A2DP, AVRCP, GAVDP, HFP 1. 5, PBAP, HSP, HID, GOEP, SDAP/SDP, OPP, SPP, PAN, Stereo Streaming, MAP, AVDTP, OBEX (CR) Andriod Market 4G LTE Internet GPS Navigation Wifi 8. 0 megapixel camera $549. 99 ? ? ? ? ? PDA:HP iPAQ 110 Classic PDA Batteries Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) 1200 mAh Standard Battery 1 x 4-pin Mini-phone Headphone 3. 5Ã¢â¬ ³ QVGA Transflective TFT Touchscreen 240 x 320 PDA $323. 70 Ports 1 x USB 2. 0 Ã¢â¬â Mini USB Display Screen Display Resolution Product Type Manufacturer FA980AA Part Number Manufacturer www. hp. comWebsite Address Manufacturer Hewlett-Packard Product Model 110 Product Name iPAQ 110 Classic PDA Product Line Brand Name Standard Memory Memory Technology Package Contents iPAQ HP 64 MB SDRAM ? iPAQ 110 Classic PDA ? Mini USB Synchronization/Charge Cable ? Documentation ? Companion CD-ROM ? Standard Battery ? AC Adapter ? Power Cord ? Slip Case ? Stylus IEEE 802. 11b/g Wi-Fi Product Series 100 Flash Memory 256 MB Network Bluetooth 2. 0 Bluetooth Weight 3. 68 oz (Approximate) Height Width Depth Processor Operating System Limited Warranty 4. 6Ã¢â¬ ³ 2. 7Ã¢â¬ ³ 0. 5Ã¢â¬ ³ Marvell PXA310 624 MHz Windows Mobile 6 Classic 1 Year
Sunday, November 10, 2019
There is a mindset in the current society that men make better politicians than women. In fact, that statement is not true. Women make good politicians too, some are even better than men in many aspects. Women politicians make better politicians because they compromise better, are more trustworthy and cooperative, plus they are more strong-minded as compared to men. One of the best example is Christine Lagarde the first female Minister of Economic Affairs in a G8 economy which is the governments of eight of the world's largest economies(Christine Lagarde, pars. 3).She is also voted as the world's 9th most powerful woman according to Forbes magazine. Women politicians have a more compromising and friendly nature than men. This ultimately becomes a highly useful political tool for political campaign. They tend to face difficult situations with a calm attitude. For example, Ms. Indra Gandhi, the first female prime minister in India chose a peaceful way to rule her country. When her coun try was at war with Pakistan in 1971, she signed the treaty of friendship and cooperation with Pakistan to avoid financial hardship and instability in her country (Palekar, pars.Ã 2-5).Thus, resulting a stable economy in India. She ruled her country effectively by getting moral support from all the ministers and maintaning good relationship with the other countries which helped in the economic growth of India. This would not have happened without her compromising and friendly nature. Aside from that, female politicians also are more cooperative and trustworthy than men. Research shows, women are more skilled at making people work together.This is because women are better at communicating with each other during work, they implement successful strategies thereby achieving higher results. On the other hand, men tend to excel more at bamboozling and cheating. This is proven by the studies of Rolf Kuemmerli and colleagues by repeating a game called Prisoner's Dilemma. This game involve s two people, they need to cooperate with each other to obtain a win-win situation. Studies shows that men do not cooperate as well as women because women have a better ability to interact and comprehend messages that one is trying to deliver (Highfield, pars.Ã 5-11).In addition, women are found to be more trustworthy than men. This statement is proven by Professor Roger Steare using the Ã¢â¬Å"Moral DNAÃ¢â¬ test by measuring a person's morality and changes in their value system when they enter the workplace. According to results, women have more moral values , proving that they are more trustworthy (Knight, pars. 3-5). Making them better politicians. Besides that, scientists claimed that male politicians are more decisive than female politicians (Men more decisive, pars. 5-9) .However, that doesn't mean that female politicians are not good at making decisions. In fact, female politician are less decisive but more strong-minded than men as they consider their decision thoroughl y before finalizing. Before making a desicion, they examine the consequences towards an individual, society and the country and seek for a win-win solution. They search for long-term solutions by using retention strategies as a way to improve the results. Thus, they have the capacity to be more balanced in decision-making.Not only that, women are more precautious and they tend to make less mistakes in their work. This is because women always think twice and recheck their work before completing the final touches. This indirectly proves that women are better politicians than men. In my opinion, women politicians make better politicians because they compromise better, are more trustworthy and cooperative, plus they are more strong-minded as compared to men. They have more good aspects when compared to men. Thus, women are better politicians than men.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Theories of Personality Essay Example Theories of Personality Essay Theories of Personality Essay Theories of Personality Psychoanalytic perspective is based on Sigmund Frued perspectives about early experiences it focuses on the importance of the unconscious mind which contains thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories/past experiences in which we are unaware of. The id operates on the pleasure principle by satisfying basic urges, needs, and desires. Ego operates on the reality principle, satisfies the idÃ¢â¬â¢s desires in ways that it will cause pleasure instead of pain. Superego strives for perfection, positive feelings and negative feelings of guilt. These three systems were interactions of FruedÃ¢â¬â¢s view of personality structure. Freud perspective also focused on psychosexual stages which is the childhood stages of development. Defense mechanisms are methods of reducing anxiety. This perspective could account for the development of introverted and an extroverted personality Humanistic perspective focuses on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s uniqueness and their ability and responsibility to make choices in their lives. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers were the founders of this theory they believed that a persons free choice, free will, and understanding of their own experiences and feelings. The meanings of events in his or her life are the most important things to study. Carl Rogers believed that Human nature is viewed as basically good and that we all strive for actualizing tendencies but never reached them if based on the opinions of others. Rogers used client-centered therapy to raise the self-concept of the client and stop their tendencies to look for others opinions. The clientÃ¢â¬â¢s esteem needs will be met and hopefully seize from concerning other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions. Rogers also developed a q-sort to judge the self-concept. The humanistic perspective can lead to an introverted personality by the individual not reaching their actualizing tendencies because of the opinions of others. The individual may base their level of self-concept on othersÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions and if he/she receives negative opinions then that may lead the individual to have low self-esteem and an introverted personality. The humanistic perspective can also lead to an extroverted personality by the individual raising their self-concept by stopping their tendencies to look for others approval. Once they accept themselves, their esteem needs will be met and obtain gratification about themselves. Once their self-esteem rises, the individual will feel more comfortable socializing and be more energized The Trait perspective suggests that individual personalities are composed broad dispositions. The trait approach to personality is focused on differences between individuals. A trait is defined as a relatively stable predisposition to behave in a specific way. The Ã¢â¬Å"Big FiveÃ¢â¬ is factors of personality that represents five core traits that interact to form human personality. These traits were Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness, and Extraversion. Psychologist, Gordon Allport believed that every individual was unique and categorized their traits in three levels: Cardinal Traits (traits that dominate an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s whole life), Central Traits (general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality), and Secondary Traits (traits that are sometimes related to attitudes and often appear only in certain situations). Also British psychologist Hans Eysenck developed a model of personality based upon just three universal trails. Introversion/Extraversion: Introversion involves directing attention on inner experiences, while extraversion relates to focusing attention outward on the environment. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability: Neuroticism refers to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to become upset or emotional, while stability refers to the tendency to remain emotionally constant. Finally there is Psychoticism which is having difficulty dealing with reality and may be antisocial, hostile, non-empathetic and manipulative. The trait perspective can lead to an introverted personality by having psychoticism that perhaps consisted from a genetic basis. An individual might have inherited psychoticism, thus leading the individual to have interpersonal hostility and an introverted personality. The trait perspective can lead to an extroverted personality by having Extraversion traits as the individuals Cardinal traits. The individuals attitude would be sociable, fun-loving, and affectionate, plus all that will be their dominate traits, thus having and extroverted personality. Introversion involves directing attention on inner experiences, while extraversion relates to focusing attention outward on other people and the environment. So, a person high in introversion might be quiet and reserved, while an individual high in extraversion might be sociable and outgoing. The social cognitive perspective was proposed by Albert Bandura it emphasizes the interactions of a person and their situations. Social cognitive theorists focused on how we and our environment interact they believed we learn many of our behaviors by observing others as well as mental process which was thinking about our situations affects our behavior. A. Learned Helplessness- Learned helplessness is when people and animals experience no control over repeated bad events and then come to feel hopeless, helpless and depressed. An example of learned helplessness is a person with low self esteem, they start to feel hopeless and depressed when they think someone else is better than them whether they are better looking, or better at doing something they begin to let there guard down and then feel depressed and hopeless. Optimistic Attributional Style- A positive or negative way of explaining events in their lives. A person may say that a positive event happened because of them and they also believe that more positive things will happen in the future due to that event. As for negative events they see them as it not being their fault. An example would be External Locus of Control- The perception that chance or outside forces beyond oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal control determine oneÃ¢â¬â¢s fate. Individuals who have no self-control are external locus of control. Self- serving Bias- is a readiness to perceive oneself favorably. It refers to attribute positive outcomes to personal factors, but attribute negative outcomes to external factors. An example would be if you won your first track meet, you might say that this was due to the fact that you practiced hard, or that youÃ¢â¬â¢re a fast runner. If you lost, you might blame the referee, the weather, or the fields where you are competing rather than admitting that you did not do your best. Psychology
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Counterintelligence essays As far as intelligence organizations, intelligence designates information that is gathered by these governmental agencies and used for purposes of national security and foreign policy. The US Intelligence Community is comprised of sixteen agencies but the total number of security and intelligences agencies is much larger covering an impressive number of possible threats to national security; it included the Central Intelligence Agency CIA an independent organization. Thesis: Intelligence responsibilities need to be shared by multiple agencies because different threats require different approaches; this would also prevent prevailing partisan influences. Intelligence agencies are governmental thus political tools for shaping foreign policy and for homeland protection hence they are subject to the process of specialization. Specialization is a concept which is applied to science; it allows close study of problems and theories; its downside is that it focuses the attention on a single area of study which in turn, limits valid perspectives in other areas which might influence our area of interest. Specialization is needed not only in the academic field but also for its contributions to public discourse and policy1. Intelligence techniques are utilized both during war and peace for a wide range of foreign policy functions, from espionage to political assassination. In the case of public policy making, decision makers apply one instrument in a set of cases based on estimates of likely effects. The governmental function of intelligence agencies are normally shrouded in secrecy. As far as foreign intelligence, it implies understanding past events, analyzing current conditions, and thus attempting to predict the future. This predictability is crucial to intelligence agencies whose mission is to gather information, provide a coherent analysis, and cooperate with other institutions. Some voices are quite critical of the way in...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
The effectiveness of the budgetary control system in 'Cleaning For London' - Essay Example It will include illustrating and evaluating the role of budgetary control in support to internal planning and decision making. It aims to create an effective budgetary control system for its operations, to identify cost behaviours and to propose a suitable recommendation for improvement. Budget is a quantitative financial plan of operations. It identifies the resources needed in order to accomplish the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and objectives. It contains detailed plans and policies to be pursued in a future accounting period. It is continuous where one updates the budget for the year at the end of each month or each quarter. A continuous budget remains more relevant and more current. As a service company, Ã¢â¬Å"Cleaning Services for LondonÃ¢â¬ the operating budget includes purchase budget, human resources budget and sales budget. One of the major facets of budgeting is cost control. Budgets are the key to cost control. The purpose of budgetary control is to help master the financial aspects of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations and solve problems before they occur. Financial control is exercised by managers in preparing budgets for revenues and expenditures of an organisation in advance. Budgetary control facilitates the management and allocation of resources and funds in operating the business to achieve desired outcomes or to provide basis for revision of business objectives and plans. The activities of the company are categorized into two Ã¢â¬â revenue generators and cost drivers. These main activities summarise the operations of the company in financial terms where revenue generators are cash inflow of the company while cost drivers are expenses incurred in the operation of the business. The company utilises a simple budget system in line with a business plan for one year. The manager who is responsible for the financial, marketing, administrative and operational matters uses cash flow forecasts as basis
Friday, November 1, 2019
Strategic and Financial Decision Making - Essay Example The cost of financing through equity is more than that of debt. The bond holders are paid fixed rate of interest every year, hence they bear no risk. The equity shareholders do not receive any fixed income every year; it is dependent on the profits of the company. Hence, there is a risk involved in holding equity shares as compared to debt capital. Therefore the equity shareholders require more return as compensation to the extra risk borne by them. On the factors discussed above, debt financing would seem more attractive as compared to equity financing. But decision cannot be made solely on the cost factor. One also has to look into the risk involved in different sources of financing. Since there is a fixed obligation every year towards interest payment, it is considered to be more risky than financing through equity on which no risk is involved. Thus, a company has to decide upon the level of debt on the basis of the risk it can undertake. Eugene, Houston (2007:1).The following ste ps involved in decision making process are: Existing capital structure: One has to evaluate the existing capital structure. In case the company has too much debt already it is not advisable to issue more debt. It can also maintain the existing debt equity ratio or change the ratio. Dividend payout policy: The dividend payout ratio should be decided be the firm, so as to maintain the same every year. This is because fluctuating dividend payout ratio would reduce the confidence of the shareholders towards the company. Effect of return: The company has to analyze the effect on return because of the cost of capital. It has to ensure that it is able to earn the desire level of return of the investors. Effect of return: In order to reduce the cost of the capital a firm might take debt equity mix. However, it should first analyze the risk involved in using debt as a source of capital. Effect on cost of capital: The effect of desired level of debt and equity on the cost of capital of the company should be evaluated. Excess debt can lead to increase in cost of capital after a certain point of time because of the high risk involved. These decisions should be based after careful study of the market. The risk appetite, the required rate of return of the shareholders, the effect on market value of the shares due to change in the capital structure of the company should be studied. Hence, these factors have to be taken into consideration in order to arrive at a sound decision. b) The investment proposal involves an initial investment of 3,000,000 along with cost of forecasting of 100,000. The proposal is expected to be financed at the existing debt-equity ratio of 2:3. It is assumed that the return required by equity investors is 10.5% (real). Therefore nominal return (inflation adjusted) expected would be 10.5% + 5% (inflation) that is 15.5%. The rate of interest payable on corporate bonds (debt) is 6% p.a. We have to now compute the weighted average cost of capital