Monday, March 9, 2020
How to Deal with Peoples Language Barriers Since there are hundreds of languages, it is not rare to come across people with difficulties in speaking your native language during travel, trade, or while carrying out other daily duties. However, in spite of language barriers, it is not impossible to communicate effectively.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on How to Deal with PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Language Barriers specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effectual communication is a talent that can be learned. The steps for getting your points across can easily be understood by individuals who have self-confidence and understanding of the basics (Janzen 21). When you meet a person with difficulties in speaking your language, first, try communicating using other languages. Many people are multi lingual. You may come across a person in the US, for instance, who cannot speak Korean, but if both of you can speak English, you can talk with much ease. Concurrently, read the body langu age closely and try to understand the intentions of the person. Use gestures to express universally acceptable concepts. You can smile to show that you have good intentions. This is an effective method of breaking the ice, which according to Lee, helps to make communication easy. After making communication easy, it is advisable to use the language of the listener to say, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t speak much of that language.Ã¢â¬ Do not fear to use signs. In case of further difficulties, draw pictures on a note pad if possible (Lee). At the same time, exercise patient and pronounce words properly to find out if the other party understands the basic vocabularies. Avoid using exaggerated pronunciations, as it may result to more confusion. Nevertheless, be attentive to learn if you need to articulate certain words as your listener does (Lee). It is highly commendable to choose this method if the suitable accent is dissimilar from the non- native accent. Additionally, it is commendable to avoid turning up the volume thinking that it would enhance communication. Further, avoid hiding your mouth since the other party will be interested in studying your mouth as you utter each word. It is also improper to use baby talk or improper language.Advertising Looking for essay on languages? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It can puzzle the non-native speaker and send the wrong notion regarding your level of proficiency. Moreover, avoid using running words together. This is because listeners often face the challenge of determining the last part and the beginning of words. It is, therefore, necessary to give a pause between words to help them understand the words without struggling (Caputo et al. 13). The listener may indicate that he/she is still struggling to communicate with you, and in this case, opt for simple words instead of complex ones. The simpler the word is, the enhanced the probability that the liste ner will appreciate it. For example, opt for the word big instead of enormous or make instead of manufacture. Note that sometimes, the Ã¢â¬ËcomplexÃ¢â¬â¢ words are easier to understand than the Ã¢â¬ËsimplerÃ¢â¬â¢ ones (Caputo et al. 13). For example, Romance language speakers find certain Ã¢â¬ËcomplexÃ¢â¬â¢ English words easy to understand since they are rooted in Latin. When communicating with Somalia people, one should use the complex Swahili words since they are rooted in Arabic. After identifying your listenersÃ¢â¬â¢ native language, you will encounter little difficulty deciding whether to use the simple or complex words. Your choice of verb phrases is also important. Use verb phrases whose meanings are easy to understand and do not pronounce as the listenerÃ¢â¬â¢s language. Lee says that it is advisable to use simple phrases instead of the confusing verb phrases. Ã¢â¬Å"Look outÃ¢â¬ sounds almost the same as Ã¢â¬Å"look for.Ã¢â¬ Using any of the verbs is n ot helpful to the listener. Therefore, instead of opting for Ã¢â¬Å"look forÃ¢â¬ it is better to opt for Ã¢â¬Ësearch forÃ¢â¬â¢. Moreover, instead of saying Ã¢â¬Ëlook outÃ¢â¬â¢, it is best to say Ã¢â¬Ëbe carefulÃ¢â¬â¢. Further, is better to avoid using filler and colloquialisms. Words such as Ã¢â¬ËumÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËyeahÃ¢â¬â¢, andÃ¢â¬â¢ totallyÃ¢â¬â¢ do not help in making communication easy. You should avoid these words.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on How to Deal with PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Language Barriers specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Non-native speakers, particularly those with poorer levels of proficiency, commonly suppose that fillers are vocabularies that they do not have in their native languages. Colloquialism is equally difficult to understand. Some of them are not easy to look up for in most dictionaries since they are not universal y accepted items of language. Patience is spec ial virtue that may make communicating with non-native speakers. This is because you may be asked a number of times to repeat something. When asked, repeat it as you said it the initial moment because it is possible that your listener did not hear you. However, if your listener still demonstrates difficulty in understanding, modify a few important words in the sentence, as they could have encountered problems in understanding some of the words. When repeating a sentence, repeat the entire sentence and not simply certain few words. Handling this is time consuming, but it is essential in eliminating confusion (Janzen 20). You should put in mind that your dialect may be different from what the listener learnt in school, and therefore while paraphrasing, try using other similar words that you might have known. In addition, use long forms of words. It is difficult for non- native speakers to determine the difference between short and long forms of words. Be explicit. You should say Ã¢â¬ ËyesÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËnoÃ¢â¬â¢ but not Ã¢â¬Å"Uh-huhÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Uh-uh.Ã¢â¬ The words are confusing since they are not in grammar books. Outstandingly, for communication to be effective, both parties should understand each other. Therefore, listening is very important. Listen and refrain from making up your mind while the other party is still talking. Keep patience until the other person is done. This will help you to give useful information based on the information he/she have provided. At the same time, you should be conscious that certain customs have diverse norms concerning matters such as touching, personal space, and eye contact. The awareness will help you to tell whether an individual is trying to offend or not. Someone standing far away or not maintaining eye contact due to obedience to his/her cultural norms is not offending.Advertising Looking for essay on languages? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, a person who behaves in the same manner but has sufficient justification may be trying to offend. You should device better strategies to improve your communication. Remember to be relaxed and have satisfactory control of your communication (Caputo et al. 13). Conclusively, dealing with people who do not speak your language is challenging, but one can learn the apposite communication basics and overcome the barriers. Patience and showing emotional attachment are important elements for making communication with such persons effective. An effective communicator should put into practice all the basic steps. However, apart from putting the steps into practice, he/she should exercise creativity and innovativeness. Caputo, John S., Jo Palosaari, Kenneth Pickering, and John Nicholas. Effective communication. Twickenham, Eng.: Dramatic Lines, 2003. Print. Janzen, Joy. Teaching English language learners in the content areas. Review of Educational Research 78.4 (2008): 1010 -1038. Lee, Peter. How to Communicate with Non-Native Speakers of English | CultureLink International. CultureLink International. N.p., 1 Jan. 2009. Web.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
NonUS Health Care System Analysis - Essay Example The year 1900 saw a symbolic opening of the new century's scientific internationalism with the awarding of the first Nobel prizes. From that point on the nations of the world have become enmeshed in a great variety of regional and global organizations established for every conceivable purpose. International health activities have grown steadily in breadth and complexity, as more and more actors are involved in a process that continues to accelerate. Official agreements between sovereign states in the field of health exist in many forms. Some are developed through membership in multilateral agencies. Others derive from bilateral cooperative contracts between pairs of countries, often developed and developing. Here we will describe the evolution and structure of some of these organizations from about 1900 to the present. Over the three decades from 1874 to 1903 biomedical science advanced far more than it had in the previous three millennia. The acceptance of Darwin's concept of evolution, the application of quantitative reasoning, and developments in chemistry and microscopy led to an unprecedented accumulation of new knowledge. This knowledge, combined with field-based research all over the world, revealed for the first time the means of transmission and causative agent of almost every infectious disease important to human and veterinary medicine. International bickering and the chaos of the worldwide economic depression, with resultant wavering support and a chronic shortage of funds, marked operations of the National Health Service (NHS) in the 1940s. Communication was carried out by (sea) mail, telegrams, and, where possible, by telephone or two-way radio. Obtaining timely information about disease outbreaks in remote areas was a continuing problem. The principles governing the work of the National Health Service were to inform national health authorities on matters of fact, to document them on methods of solving their technical problems and to afford them such direct assistance as they may require. The work of the NHS is divided into two major categories: central technical services and services to governments. The central services include epidemiological intelligence; work toward international agreements concerned with health aspects to travel and commerce; international standardization of vaccines and pharmaceuticals and the dissemination of knowledge through meetings and reports of expert committees, seminars, study groups, and publication of technical and similar literature on national health problems. Headquarters also coordinates the work of several hundred NHS collaborating centers, laboratories, and institutes throughout the country that provide expert consultation and services in many fields. An important contribution to national understanding is made by the NHS fellowship program, under which thousands of persons have gone for brief study tours abroad in fields such as public health administration; environmental health; nursing, maternal and child health; other health services;
Thursday, February 6, 2020
QUIZ QUESTION AND ANSWERS - Outline Example ose of a sampling frame, which is to provide a method of selecting the particular individuals of a target population that will be subjected under interviews via the use of questionnaires. Before choosing this sample frame, one has to define the relationship between target population and the selected unit, since this unit is the one which determines the frame. A good sampling frame must have the following qualities. It should be accurate, complete and up-to-date. How well these properties relate to a target frame, will determine whether or not the sample frame is of good quality. Accuracy refers to a situation whereby an individual in a target population is incorporated just once. On the other hand, completeness refers to a situation whereby each and every individual of a target population is included in the sampling frame. Lastly, the quality up-to-date refers to a situation whereby the sample frame has to be current and not obsolete for it to be valid. Validity with respect to social research refers to the degree to which the set measures indicate what they had initially proposed to measure (KOTHARI, 2005). It can also be defined as the equivalence between the operational definition and the theoretical definition. For validity measurement, one has to first measure the reliability of that data. By contrast, reliability in social research refers to a situation whereby the same set of results is obtained irrespective of the time or place of survey, so long as the phenomenon being measured remains constant. Hence reliability focuses mainly on the consistency of the data taken from the target population. An in-depth interview refers to a dialogue between a trained interviewer and an interviewee, with the aim of exploring the intervieweeÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings, views, behavior, experiences and perspectives. Some important characteristics of an in-depth interview include; open-ended questions, conversational, recording responses, recording observations, recording reflections an
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Private schools vs public schools Essay Introduction: The controversy related to private schools vs public schools has developed over the years. Several arguments have been forwarded from the proponents of both view points and have eulogized the one stream of schools over the other. Private schools are generally regarded a better option for educating the children if one has the resources. Ã Private schools are able to execute more effective and efficient educational policies and programs and can take on better teachers owing to strong financial backup that itself is generated through heavy students tuitions. In contrast to private schools, public schools are funded by government treasury and have little sources to finance the more modern and effective education policies and methodologies. This paper will analyze the pros and cons of both streams of schools systems. Private Schools: Less-population-More Concentration: The most important aspects of private school as compared with public schools is the strength of the students at class and school level. Private schools have smaller number of students as mainstream students attend the local public schools. National Center for Education Statistics says in this regards; Ã¢â¬Å"As reported by teachers in 1999-2000, average class size for self-contained classes tended to be somewhat larger in traditional public and public charter elementary schools than in private elementary schools.Ã¢â¬ (NCES) According to a web site called Public School Review, Private schools average 13 students per teacher, compared with an average of 16 students per teacher in public schools (publicschoolreview). So public schools are more crowded as compared with private schools. This strength ratio clearly manifests that in private schools more attentions and concentration can be given to individual students. This one to one attention remains a hallmark of the private schools. Higher education Focused Courses and Programs: The second most important strength of the private schools is that it offers supplementary enhanced and higher education focused lessons and courses and their objective remains to polish their students to join an institute of higher education. NCESÃ¢â¬â¢ study shows in this regard; At least 40 percent of elementary schools in all sectors reported offering students extended, before-school, or after-school daycare programs. Private and public charter elementary schools were the most likely to offer such programs. An estimated 65.1 percent of private schools and 62.9 percent of public charter schools offered such programs, compared with 46.5 percent of traditional public elementary schools. (NCES) In comparison with private schools, public schools seem working on the conventional philosophy that each student is unique and college education does not suit everyone and hence no one should be forced to go ahead with higher education and they should be allowed and encouraged to choose and carve their own future paths. Ã Courses: Public schools offer general programs whereas private schools offer specialized programs for students that can enable them to take specialized courses at college and university level. In public schools the education of the students is pre-decided by the state what they have to learn and parents and/or students have no say in this regard. Private schools provides flexible programs and students and their parents can opt from variety of options. Great school staff website highlight and analyze the impotence of these flexible courses and says; Private schools have the flexibility to create a specialized program for students. For example, private schools may use art or science in all classes, or take children on extended outdoor trips that blend lessons across the curriculum. Private schools can create their own curriculum and assessment systems, although many also choose to use standardized tests. (Great School Staff, 2008). Less Bureaucracy: Another indirect advantage that contributes toward the overall efficiency of the private schools is the minimum role of state bureaucracy. Less time is spent on formalities including following unnecessary state policies and paperwork and thus more time is available to concentrate the quality of education, syllabus and methodologies. Teachers are more independent in their classrooms and they work out certain creative strategies to teach their students in an innovative way. The efficiency and usefulness of public schools is marred because they have to go after all national, state and local policies pertaining to education as well as finances. Higher Academic Excellence: Quality of education is the most important tool to measure the excellence of either a private school or a public school. The study Ã¢â¬Å"The 2003 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)Ã¢â¬ conducted by National Center for Education Statistics reveals that private schools produce more excellence academically than public schools. This comparison in academic excellence was conducted at various levels and in various subjects. The results of a grade 4 Ã¢â¬Å"ReadingÃ¢â¬ discloses that; Ã¢â¬Å"In the first set of analyses, all private schools were compared to all public schools. The average private school mean reading score was 14.7 points higher than the average public school mean reading scoreÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ (NCES) Same was the case with Grade 4Mathamirtics where private schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s students scored 7.8 higher than the public schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ students. Same results were shown for Grade 8. This study is a clear manifestation of higher academic superiority and quality of education they offer. Safety at Campus: General school environment related to safety and conflict among students is another factor that parents keep in mind while opting for a schools. This is an important factor as Schools are not only a home to impart quality education but they are also concerned with the personal grooming of the children. Safe and sound environment reflects itself in the development of a good and healthy personality whereas conflict-ridden environment does not produce high-quality characters. Studies show that Private schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ campuses are less prone to conflict as compared with Public schools. NCES reports manifests; Private school teachers were also less likely than teachers in other sectors to report physical conflicts among students as a serious problem in their school. Just 1.0 percent of private school teachers reported that physical conflicts among students were a serious problem in their school, compared with 4.8 percent of both traditional public school and public charter school teachers. (NCES) Public Schools Proponents of the public schools forward certain arguments and supported evidence in favor of academic excellence at public schools. They further quote various studies in favor of their prepositions. The most important arguments forwarded by advocates of Public schools are as under; Enhanced Extra and co-curricular activities: This does not suggest that public schools have no advantages over private schools. Public schools can offer more on co-curricular activities and can fund more activities in this realm than private schools. Maureen Boland says in this regard; Most public schools are simply bigger than private schools, and have enough students to pull off a science fair or power a chorus or computer club. Whats more, federal and state laws require public schools to provide diagnostic and disability services. Public schools are more likely to offer gifted and talented and remedial programs, too. (Boland) Higher Teacher Qualification: NCES study reveals that Public schools teacher are more qualified as compared with their private school counterparts. Furthermore, teachers form public schools attend the professional development courses more often. The study says; Ã¢â¬Å"Among full-time traditional public school teachers, 59.3 percent participated in such professional development activities, compared with 55.2 percent of full-time public charter school teachers and 43.1 percent of full-time private school teachers.Ã¢â¬ (NCES) Adherents of public schools are of the view that Ã¢â¬Å"Private school innovations do not in every case stimulate improved practices at the public schools with which they compete.Ã¢â¬ (Rothstein et al) They further illustrate that Ã¢â¬Å"Private elementary school personnel are not necessarily more accountable to parents than are public elementary school personnel.Ã¢â¬ (Rothstein et al) Conclusion: The above-mentioned arguments of the proponents of the public schools can easily be refuted as the primary objective of the schools remains imparting academic excellence and quality education whereas co-curricular activities and higher teacher professional development are secondary or subservient to the stated primary objective. Public schools are cost effective as compared with private school because they are hugely funded from the state treasury. But the abovementioned arguments and supported evidence clearly manifest that this cost effective sacrifices the quality of education. Although private schools charge huge amounts as fees but there are two valid reasons for this. Firstly they are self-sponsored. Secondly they need huge amounts to spend on the quality of education they produce or wish to produce. On the whole, private schools are more focused and thoroughly committed to the development of education with excellence. They do not believe in the mere transfer of knowledge but take into account the aptitude and mental inclination of the children and believe in charging their creative batteries. The faculty member of the private schools earn more and thus are dedicated toward their work and hanker after more excellence. References Boland, Maureen. Public vs. private: Which is right for your child? Parent Center. Center on education Policy. Are private High Schools Better Academically Than Public High School? October 2007. Great Schools Staff. (2007). Private vs. Public: WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the Difference?. National Center for Education Statistics. Schools and Staffing Survey, 1999-2000: Overview of the Data for Public, Private, Public Charter, and Bureau of Indian Affairs Elementary and Secondary Schools. Fast Facts. Public School Review. Public Versus Private Schools. Retrieved March 23, 2008 at Web Rothstein. Richard, Carnoy, Martin Benveniste, Luis. Can Public Schools Learn From Private Schools? Case Studies in the Public Private Nonprofit Sectors. Economic Policy Institute. Ã U.S. Department of Education. Comparing Private Schools and Public Schools. Retrieved March 23, 2008 at Web Site:nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/studies/2006461.pdf
Monday, January 20, 2020
Introduction to Mobile Phone Mobile Phone is a wireless device that emits RFR (radio-frequency radiation) to transmit data and allows people to communicate anywhere. It can be carried anywhere as long as there is a signal transmission. There are three types of Mobile coverage, which are: AMPS, GSM and CDMA AMPS (Analogue Mobile Phone System) It is an analogue signal and system for transmit data and be used for mobile communication. The strength of this system is it has a better network coverage than GSM. However it is the most insecure mobile phone. This system is also going to be closed in Australia until end of 2000 as the government states that analogue signal make the frequency too crowded. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) It is a digital system that converts from our voice to digital (pulse) and transmits it to air for mobile communication. The strength of this system is it is more secure than analogue system. On the other hand, the weakness is the signal is not as strong as analogue system. CDMA(Code Division Multiple Access) It uses a digital systems but it is not pulsed as GSM did. The strength of this system is it has the best signal receiver, and it is secure communication. However, it is just being introduced in Australia and the rest of the world. <div class="sub-title">Network Provider in Australia Optus Optus stated that they have 93% population coverage, which means, the capacity of the network that Optus can carry is up to 93 % of total population. It also has strength, which it has the lowest congestion rate (making and receiving call) Telstra Telstra stated that they have 94% population coverage, which means they can carry up to 94 % of the total population. Their strength is they have better network signal compare to other competitors. Vodafone Vodafone have 91% population coverage. Their strength is they are international recognition so people will believe that they have more experienced worldwide. The market shares of these companies are as follow: Telstra 49%, followed by Optus 33 % and last by Vodafone 18% <div class="sub-title">The Users of Mobile Phones Business People It is obvious that most of business people in Australia use Mobile Phone now. It can be seen from the street that almost every business people have a mobile phone. Rural Business People It is important that rural business people to be able to communicate to other people, as sometimes the lines connection to rural area is not available.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Organizations analyze the environment in order to understand the external forces so that it could help to develop effective responses to secure or improve their positions in the future. There existed a positive relation between environmental analysis and profits of an organization. Top management looked at information in two ways: viewing and searching information. This information needed to be evaluated and disseminated to strategists within the organization and to help top management to make decisions that could create strategic advantage for the organization to succeed in a changing environment 1. There were research evidences that showed that environmental analysis was linked with improved organizational performance. Hence, it remained insufficient to assure performance, without aligning information with strategy. The main debate in strategy and environment was concerned with the primary importance of the environmental analysis in strategy formulation and implementation. 84 Reserve Bank of India The Reserve Bank of India is fully owned by the Government of India. Initially it was viewed to bring the greater coordination of the monetary, economic, and financial policies. During fifties objectives of Reserve Bank of India underwent changes. It was recognized that Reserve Bank of India needs to take on direct and much more active role, in developing machinery for financial development in order to ensure flow of finance in the country. Reserve Bank emerged as a regulatory and a growth promoting institution. In the beginning limited to the agricultural sector, the Bank later covered small-scale industries as well. The affairs of Reserve Bank of India are governed by the central board of directors. The board is appointed by the Government of India according to the Reserve Bank of India Act. The preface of the Reserve Bank of India describes the basic functions of the Reserve Bank as: Ã¢â¬Å"to regulate the issue of Bank Notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in India and generally to operate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantageÃ¢â¬ 2. The Reserve Bank? s freedom may be viewed broadly to the areas like management including personnel matters, financial aspects, and to conduct polices. Managerial freedom refers to the procedures for appointment, term of office and dismissal procedures of top central bank officials and the governing board. It also includes the extent and nature of representation of the Government in the governing body of the central bank. 85 Financial freedom relates to the freedom to decide the extent of Government expenditures directly or indirectly financed by the central bank? s credits. Finally, policy freedom is related to the flexibility given in the formulation and execution of monetary policy, under a given authorization. Reserve Bank of India has over the years been responding to changing economic circumstances. The Reserve Bank of India performs the function of financial supervisor under the guidance of Board for Financial Supervision. This board undertake consolidated supervision of the financial sector comprising of Commercial Banks, Financial Institutions, and Non-Banking Finance Companies. The key functions played by this board were restructuring of the system of Bank, introduction of off-site scrutiny, strengthening the role of legislative auditors, and strengthening the internal defences of supervised institutions. Currently this board focus on supervision of financial institutions and legal issues in Banks. Reserve Bank of India acts as a guard for Commercial Banks. Commercial Banks are required to keep a certain proportion of cash reserves with the Reserve Bank and Bank provide them various facilities like advancing loans, underwriting securities etc. Reserve Bank of India controls the volume of reserves of Commercial Banks and thereby determines the deposits and credit creating ability of the Banks. Whenever Commercial Banks need funds they get it from the Reserve Bank of India. Apart from playing the role of Banker to the Banks, Reserve Bank of India also play promotional role. The aim is to establish and assist the establishments of a number of financial intuitions for filling up of various financial institutional gaps in the rural and semi-urban areas. 86 Other roles played by Reserve Bank of India are: Reserve Bank stabilizes the external value of the national currency. The Reserve Bank keeps gold and foreign currencies and manages foreign currency in accordance with the controls imposed by the government. Reserve Bank of India facilitate external trade and payment and promote orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India. Reserve Bank has taken the responsibility of meeting directly or indirectly all legitimate demands of Commercial Banks under emergency conditions and to a certain extent Reserve Bank influence the credit policy of Scheduled Banks. The Reserve Bank has instrument of control in the form of the bank rate, which it publishes from time to time 3. A list of the Reserve Bank of India Committees from 1990- 2008 was prepared to get an impression about developments with respect to Banking Industry (Appendix- III). The recommendations resulted into remarkable changes in products and policies of Banking Organizations. Indian BankÃ¢â¬â¢s Association (IBA) Indian Bank? s Association is a leading service organization of Banking Industry in India. It aims to integrate Banking and finance system catering to all financial requirements of customer? s. It was formed in 1946 with 22 members. Today Indian Bank? s Association has more than 159 members comprising of Public Sector Banks, Private Sector Banks, Foreign Banks (having offices in India), and Urban Co-operative Banks. 87 The main objectives of Indian Bank? Association are: promoting and developing sound and progressive Banking principles and practices in order to assist Banks to develop and implement new ideas and innovative Banking services, operations and procedures; organizing co-ordination and co-operation on procedural, legal, technical, administrative or professional problems and practices of Banks ; circulating statistical data, informati on, views and opinions on the Banking System; conducting Management Development Programs for Banks; promoting education and knowledge of the law and practices of Banking Industry; to help in projecting good public image of Banking Industry ; and to promote harmonious relationships by devising ways and means for involving Banking personnel? in the growth and development of Banking Industry. Indian Bank? s Association tries to achieve excellent service quality and customer care through its focused efforts to make each customers experience a pleasant one. Towards this end Indian Bank? s Association stressed on to build staff potential by each Bank to address customer challenges and asked Banks to design a performance management system, which focuses on rewarding the staff for delivering flawless customer service. In 2000, Indian Bank? s Association reviewed the charters of different Banks and brought out a Ã¢â¬Å¾Model Citizen Charter? explaining to the customer? s what they could expe ct from the Bank? s as a matter of right. Apart from this Indian Bank? s Association brought Ã¢â¬Å¾bankers fair practices? in 2004 which was adopted by all Banks voluntarily. It also came out with Ã¢â¬Å¾fair practice code for credit card operation? and Ã¢â¬Å¾model code for collection of dues and repossession of security? with special concern to customer? s voice about Banking practices 4. 88 Ministry of Finance Ministry of Finance in India governs the entire fiscal system of the Government of India. The three departments headed by the Ministry of Finance in India include: economic affairs, expenditure, and revenue. Thus, it mainly centralizes around the economic and financial issues pertaining in India. Ministry of Finance Government of India, Banking Division is managing Government policies related to the working of Banks and the term lending to financial institutions. This Division is headed by Secretary (Banking and Insurance) and operates through three subdivisions: Industrial Finance; Banking Operations; and Banking and Insurance. Each subdivision is headed by a Joint Secretary. The Banking Operations sub-division deals with legislative proposals described to Banks, non-banking financial companies, and other related matters like appointments of Chief Executives and Government nominee Directors and non-official directors on the boards of Public Sector Banks. In addition policy matters relating to Private Banks, Foreign Banks, and improvement of customer? service in Banks and redressal of customers grievances are also dealt with this Banking Operations sub-division of Ministry of Finance. This sub-division also deals with vigilance matters and appoints Chief Vigilance Officers (C VO? s) in the Public Sector Banks to enable the Public Sector Banks to meet the credit requirements for the productive sectors of the economy in proportion to the economic growth of the country. The Government is committed to infuse capital funds in Public Sector Banks as well 5. 89 Nature of Banking Industry Bank? s safeguard money and valuables and provide loans, credit, and payment services, such as checking accounts, money-orders, and cashier? s checks. Banks also offer investment and insurance products which they were once prohibited. There exists variety of models for cooperation and integration among finance industries some of these traditional distinctions between Banks, Insurance Companies, and Securities Firms has diminished. In spite of these changes, Banks continued to maintain and perform their primary role of accepting deposits and lending funds from these deposits. Banks securely save the money of depositors, provide checking services, and lend the funds raised from depositors to consumers. Bank? s today are in a wide range of sizes, from large Global Banks to Regional and Community Banks. These Global Banks are involved in international lending and foreign currency trading, in addition to the more typical Banking services. Working Environment Employee? in a typical branch work weekdays, whereas in few Banks sometimes Banks were opened until late evenings or were open on Saturday morning? s and in few even on Sundays. Supervisory and managerial employee? s, usually work substantially longer hours. Some B anks are expanding the working hours in their branches which are located at non- 90 traditional locations, such as shopping malls, which remain open on most evenings and weekends. Branch office jobs, particularly front-end positions, required continuous communication with customers. Some employees needed to work for longer hours in a confined space. Loan officers might need to travel to meet clients, or work evenings for their clients. Loan officers also check loan applications, and solicit new business for Banks. Financial Service Sales Representatives might also have to visit clients in the evenings and on weekends to go through the client? s financial needs. To improve customer service and provide greater access to Bank personnel? s, Banks have staffed Customer Service Representatives. The remaining Bank employees, working at the headquarters or other administrative offices usually worked in comfortable surroundings and worked for a standard workweek. In general, Banks are considered relatively safer place to work with respect to injuries and illness. Banks also encourage higher education and training for their employee? as Banks require creative and talented people to compete in the market place so as to reach to more number of customers. The basic premise here is to Study the relevant data and derive some information related to the Strategic Environment pertaining to Indian Banking Industry, which may be used in due course in a broader context if not in specific context. Environmental factors influencing Banking Industry are: 91 Economic Factors Indian economy has registered impressive growth of over 9 percent for successive three financial years and experienced restraint in 2008-09. This restraint was caused due to the downturn in the global economy. The year 2008-09 was the most deficient year after 1972. To fight against this slowdown Government of India and Reserve Bank of India took many fiscal as well as monetary actions. It was expected that Indian economy could again register a robust growth rate in the year 2009-10. As per the revised estimates released by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), Indian economy grew by 7. 6 percent in 2008-09 and 9. 3 percent growth in the 2007-08 6. Banks lending to industries, personal loans and service sectors witnessed a slow down while, Banks lending to agriculture and allied activities moved upward during 2008-09. The income as well as the expenditures of Scheduled Commercial Banks viewed a slow down leading to decrease in the net profit. The Return on Assets (ROA) as an indicator of efficiency with which Banks deployed their assets remained to 1 percent in 2009. The Return on Equity (ROE) as an indicator of efficiency with which the Banks used capital increased to 13. 2 percent in 2009 from 12. 5 percent in 2008, indicating increased efficiency with which Banks used capital 7. 92 Growth of income of Scheduled Commercial Banks during 2008-09 decelerated to 25. 7 percent from 34. 3 in 2007-08, but was higher than the growth rate of 24. 4 percent in 200607. Expenditure of Scheduled Commercial Banks was 24. 1 percent in 2006-07, which increased to 33. 9 percent in 2007-08 and again decelerated to 26 percent in 2008-09. The operating profit of Scheduled Commercial Banks increased sharply by 33. percent during 2008-09 from 26. 8 percent in 2007-08 and 21. 3 percent in 2006-07 (Table II. 1). The net profit of Scheduled Commercial Banks also showed a significant increase of 36. 9 percent during 2007-08 as compared to 26. 9 p ercent in 2006-07, but it decelerated to 23. 5 percent during 2008-09(Table II. 1) TABLE II. 1 VARIATION IN INCOME-EXPENDITURE OF SCHEDULED COMMERCIAL BANKS 2006-07 Income Expenses Operating Profit Net Profit 24. 4 24. 1 21. 3 26. 9 2007-08 34. 3 33. 9 26. 8 36. 9 2008-09 25. 7 26. 0 33. 2 23. 5 Source: Reports on Trend and Progress of Banking in India 8, 9 The Bank Group-wise analysis is presented in Table II. 2. Even though the achievements of technological changes in Banking Industry in India were impressive but there is a need to take greater advantages from new technologies and information based system to maximize the coverage. Pricewaterhouse Coopers report 18 suggested that Banks should take up automation that would be a combination of centralized networks, operations and a Core Banking applications that included Business Intelligence (BI), Business Process Re-engineering (BPR), and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) that catered to operational and analytical business needs. The multi-channel Banking has acquired further dimensions to include third party payments such as utility bills through different channels including Automated Teller Machines and mobile banking. Bank? internal groups examined the issues, relating to rural credit and micro-finance opportunities in the sector with several possible options like smart card-based kisan credit cards, smart card solutions for self-help groups, Automated Teller Machines with local language and voice facility and call-center amenities with added services given by various Banks. Introduction of Kisan Credit Cards (KCCs) for providing credit to farmers had increased in the number a multi-fold since its inception in the late 1990? s and the total percentage share of these cards reached above forty percent 19. 97 Banks had transformed themselves into Universal Banks by adding new channels with lucrative pricing. Recent innovations in the form of total quality management, reengineering work processes, flexible systems have only one thing in common serving the customers well through improved operational efficiency. Consolidation in the Banking Industry followed by technological up-gradation acted as a key factor to boost the international competitiveness of the Indian Bank? s. Adapting technology had brought down the cost of transactions visibly and at the same time aided in business continuity. A Study mentioned that the cost per transaction through a branch was Rs. 66, cost per transaction ; through Automated Teller Machines was Rs. 22, and cost per transaction through internet was Rs. 0, ignoring the extreme variations owing to the investment cost and nature of transactions 20. This low cost benefit was opted by Commercial Banks as it helped them to reach to poor people, particularly those working in the rural areas and those who earn and spend cash. In order to handle their cash transactio ns Banks formulated two types of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). People could either use Automated Teller Machines that could accept, store or dispense cash or they could use a biometric device, which were mobile in nature. Infrastructure in India, has improved resulting into widespread use of Automated Teller Machines facility in villages as well. These machines consisted of additional features that included fingerprint use as a mean of authentication with a view that rural people were more comfortable with fingerprints than plastic cards. 98 The wide geographical coverage to access Banking related products and services with the help of mobile phone technology and the use of internet for banking transactions has gained superior usage. These modes of transactions required a safe and secure environment and provide a variety of options available for customers with different requirements. The numbers of mobile phone subscribers in India were about 261 million (March 2008). Towards this end, Reserve Bank of India issued guidelines for mobile banking transactions. Initially Banks offered the facility to their customers subject to a daily cap of Rs. 5,000 per customer for fund transfer and Rs. 10,000 per customer for transactions involving purchase of goods or services 21. Usage of internet banking in India is mainly dominated, by Private and Foreign Banks. Still, the number of individuals utilizing internet services has increased considerably. In 2006, about 12 percent of the 38. 5 million internet users in India used online banking and the figure for online banking increased to 16 million in 2007-08 22 . The average cost of servicing a customer through internet banking is the tenth of the services extended through a branch. Thus, there is a direct contribution to the profitability for a Bank and therefore, internet banking became a potential low cost alternative 23 . From customer? s viewpoint, internet banking is highly convenient as it help to avoid branch queues and makes customer free from depending on the inconsistent quality of services at the branch, which varied from person to person at the service desk. Internet Banking allowed customers to operate their accounts at their convenient hours instead of being dependent on the Banks working hours. Moreover, internet banking permitted customers to transact on a 24Ãâ"7 basis from any part of the world. 99 Therefore, internet banking delivery channel has the potential to contribute directly towards the nation? prosperity as it allowed more people to join the Banking stream without adding cost and it is tremendously convenient to customers. Reserve Bank of India started measures to create multi-lingual links on its website for thirteen Indian language s on all matters concerning Banking in June 2007 24. In the recent years, the use of electronic payments has witnessed manifold increase reflecting increased adoption of technology. The electronic payment systems comprised of the large value payment systems like Real Time Gross Settlements (RTGS), National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) and card based payment systems. The growth of volume of transactions directed through electronic payment has decelerated from 41. 4 percent in 2007-08 to 24. 8 percent in 2008-0925. The numbers and usage of Automated Teller Machines had gone up substantially during the last few years. Automated Teller Machines were primarily used for cash withdrawal and balance enquiry. In 2008-09, the total number of Automated Teller Machines installed by the Banks grew by 25. 4 percent. Automated Teller Machines of State Bank of India group registered a sharp growth of 34. 5 percent. While the Automated Teller Machines installed by new Private Sector Banks and Foreign Banks was 3 times of their respective branches 26, 27 . In March 2008, the population per automated teller machines in India was more than 29,500 as against the range of 1,000-9,500 in some of the other emerging market economies 28, 29 . In June 2009, Reserve Bank of India permitted Scheduled Commercial Banks to install off-site Automated Teller Machines at places identified by them, without any need to take permission from the Reserve Bank of India. Cash withdrawal from Automated Teller Machines of the Bank? s was made free of charges, April 2009 onwards. This made Automated Teller Machines more popular among customers. 100 Banks had deployed Information Technology solutions to facilitate automation in transaction management, reporting and risk management. Most of the Banks across the segments had already implemented Core Banking Systems. In the 2007, 85. 6 percent and in the 2008, 93. 7 percent Public Sector Banks were fully computerised 30, 31 . Other rograms such as internet based transactions, self-service kiosks, mobile banking were either underway or planned in near future by Public Sector Banks. Foreign Sector Banks and old and new Private Sector Banks in India, had progressed well in the areas of technology up-gradation i n operations. Technology up-gradation helped to introduce new products and services to enable Banks to improve the quality of service and value added services. Overall, Indian Banks score well with respect to technological adaption and the three key characteristic contributing towards the effective use of information technology in Banking Industry were: ? Factor Cost Advantage- information technology related labour costs in India remained cheaper as compared to other countries; ? Distribution Strategy- Indian Banks adopted a unique business model, acquiring customers rapidly with minimal technological investments; and ? Information Technology Governance- Indian Banks emphasized on information technology governance with the strong in-house Information Technology Division and a Chief Information Officer (CIO) directly reporting to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) in most cases. 101 It is information that made the Banking Industry stable. The pressure of competition and the need to improve productivity has generated a need for better information. In order to manage Banking operations to meet the needs of managers operating at tactical and strategic level and to improve their quality of decisions and policymaking processes within the Banks. Banks needed to set up an efficient and comprehensive Management Information System (MIS) without which asset and liability management and risk management were not possible. However, adoption of technology by Banks provided them competitive advantage in their operations but at the same time Banks became dependent on outsourcing for most of their technological applications. Therefore, Banks needed to employ caution to put in place mechanisms for vendor management. As an insecure system, could expose Banks towards serious operational regulatory and reputational risks. Banks have taken measures to safeguard the risk factors, emerging due to the use of technology. Towards this end, the Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology (IDRBT) helped Banks to bring in technology and enabled them to work in secured environment while operating Real Time Gross Settlements System, Centralised Fund Management System (CFMS), corporate e-mail, and internet banking. It also acted as a Ã¢â¬Å¾certifying authority? for the Banking Sector in India by issuing Digital Certificates 32 . Still there exists need to ensure much more accountable systems with regard to online payments with uniform standards all over the world. 102 Social Factors Before nationalization of the Banks, their control was in the hands of the private parties and only big business houses and the effluent sections of the society gained benefits from the Banking in India. Thus, adoption of the social development model in the Banking Sector was necessary for speedy economic progress consistent with social justice in democratic political system. Bankers were directed to help economically weaker sections of the society and to provide needed finance to all the sectors of the economy with flexible and liberal attitude. India? s demography had undergone transition and the demographic trends 1950 Ã¢â¬â 2050 studied, illustrates that India? s fertility rate is consistently falling from the peak 5. 91 percent in the first decade after independence to 2. 76 percent today and expected to fall further to 1. 85 percent. Even the death rate also likewise showing consistent decline from its peak 25. 5 in 1950-55 to 8. 5 today and to the lowest of 7. 9 in 2020-2025 33 . This ignifies towards steady number of customers for Banking Sector with longer income in the coming years. Indeed, India would be one of the youngest nations with its median age lying between 25 a nd 30 years over the next 15 years (2010 to 2025) 34. This signified that India would enjoy its prevalence of young age population for almost four decades. Thus, India? s demographic transition needed to be exploited by Banking Sectors viewing it as an opportunity. 103 Increase in the per capita income of the working class population of India, enabled individuals to purchase goods, which were far out of their reach earlier. It also encouraged people to buy goods for their personal use and for their family. Today societies have shifted towards nuclear family, resulting into the growing needs for home consumer durables like washing machine, television, bike, car etc. This showed how we as a society have moved from a socialist society to a consumerist society. Understanding these changes and to use them as an opportunity Banks provided various types of loans to farmers, working women, professionals, education loan to the students, housing loans, and consumer loans. Even customers life style, their behaviour, and consumption patterns have changed which acted as an opportunity as well as a threat for Banking Industry. Deposits showed a subdued growth during this decade. In 2008- 09 personal loans by Commercial Banks was 12. percent with respect to 10. 8 in 2007-08 of which housing loan was 11. 6 percent in 2007-08 and 7. 4 percent in 2008-09 35 . This deceleration was observed in housing loans especially due to economy slow down. Literacy rate in India is low as compared to other developed countries. Illiterate people hesitate to transact with Banks. Therefore, this influenced negatively on Banking Industry. Nevertheless, there exists positive side of this as well that illiterate people trust more on Banks to deposit their money as they do not have market information they do not put money in stocks or mutual funds so they look Bank as their sole and safe alternative. For a common man Banks have emerged as the key players to provide variety of products and services like saving accounts, insurance, remittance and other facilities to the under privileged and the poor in rural, semi-urban and urban areas or socially disadvantage as well as the small and medium enterprise sector . 104 On the other hand Banks deal with big clients or big companies which required personalized banking as these customers do not believe in running and waiting in queues for getting their work done . To these customers bankers provided special provisions and at times benefits like individualised hosting to these types of customers. It was brought to the notice of the Reserve Bank of India that visually challenged persons were facing problem in availing Banking facilities. Reserve Bank of India in June 2008 advised all Banks to ensure that all facilities such as cheque book including third party cheques, Automated Teller Machine facilities (at least one third of new Automated Teller Machine installed with Braille key pads and located strategically), net banking, locker, and credit cards to be provided to visually challenged persons without any discrimination 36. Banks related crimes are rising. These crimes included the typical ones such as Bank robbery, false statement to a Bank in order to obtain loan, false entry in a Banks book, Bank bribery, and Bank fraud. The other new types of crimes have also emerged like accessing to the whole or any part of information technology system without rights. These also included manipulation of Banking system, data alteration, or data destruction to make unauthorized identity theft with reference to Automate Teller Machines. Indian police has initiated by opening of special cyber cells across the country and started educating the personal against these crimes. 105 Political Factors Before 1990, the lack of accountability and lack of profit motive in Nationalized Banks was credited to political interference. After the economic reforms of 1991, the Indian Banking Industry entered into the new horizon of competiveness, efficiency, and productivity. Reserve Bank of India? s control system and its monetary policies acted as a major weapon in India? financial market. However, sometimes looking into the political advantage of a particular party, Government declares some measures for their benefits like short-term agricultural loans to attract farmer? s votes affecting the profits of the Banks. Even according to Banking Banana Skins, survey 2010 political interference was considered as the greatest risk for Banking Industry 37. In the Budget provisions, Finance Minister increased the farm credit target for 2009-10 at Rs. 3, 25,000 crore compared to Rs. 2, 87,000 crore in 2008-09. The Union Budget 200910 extended the debt waiver scheme by six more months for farmers owing more than 2 hectare of land. The Union Budget 2008-09 allowed farmers 25 percent rebate on 75 percent of their overdue repayment within the stipulated period 38 . Government also announced setting up of a task force to examine the issues of debt taken by a large number of farmers in some regions of Maharashtra from private moneylenders who were not covered under the loan waiver scheme 39 . With Government bearing this burden, Banks would not be affected much. As Government assured to help, Banks to clear their most stubborn non-performing assets accounts on Banks Book. In addition, the emphasis on expanding network with Automated Teller Machines, opening of Banking centre in unbanked blocks were some of the positive moves taken by Government. 106 Political interference by the leftist political parties claimed that various regulations with respect to Foreign Banks would benefit only those Banks, which intend to make a quick jump by providing high-profile corporate services, instead of those who wish to intensify their rural operations. Left political parties also cautioned that foreign players could increase their holding size in a particular Bank that would lead to an imbalance of power. Banks under the conventional system of recovery of loans had a considerable amount of money blocked in form of unproductive assets. Hence, to beat this difficulty parliament enacted Recovery of Debts to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 also refereed as Debt Recovery Act. This Act created a separate apparatus in the order of Debt Recovery Tribunals, which were handed over the responsibility of administering disputes pertaining to non-payment of debts. As this legislation was general in nature, another legislature by Parliament was enacted , referred as Securitization Act with an objective to give the Banks, more power over defaulting borrowers 40,41. Unions The post nationalization era in the Banking Industry in India, particularly in the Public Sector, witnessed consolidation of trade unions. All the nine unions had all-India presence in the Banking Industry. Five workers unions and four officers unions represented almost 100 percent of the workforce in the industry and joined hands to form a United Forum of Bank Unions (UFBU). United Forum of Bank Unions comprised of All India Bank Employees Association, (AIBEA), All India Bank Officers Confederation (AIBOC), 107 National Confederation of Bank Employees (NCBE), All India Bank Officers Association (AIBOA), Bank Employees Federation of India (BEFI), Indian National Bank Employees Congress (INBEC), Indian National Bank Officers Congress (INBOC), National Organization of Bank Workers (NOBW) and National Organization of Bank Officers (NOBO) 42. Representatives of unions were encouraged to give suggestions. However, in many cases undue interference of unions in decision-making has adversely affected, leading to the deterioration in discipline, efficiency, and performance effectiveness. With the growing strength of these organizations, the issues relating to employees interests were no longer determined by Bank? s managements alone. The massive introduction of technology into the industry made union policies defensive. Unions focused almost entirely on the immediate consequences of technological change on the workforce, especially the aspect of possible job losses. Employees in Public Sector Banks were repulsive to move from one table to another of the same branch. Now the trade unions seem to be willing to allow mobility for employees within a district as mergers enforced them to move from one state to another. Other issues taken up by unions were like introduction of New Pension scheme and variable pay which were resolved with the help United Forum of Bank Unions. Banks unions are also involved in demanding salary hikes, job losses, disinvestments in Public Sector, and issues related to violation of labour laws, and allocation of funds for schemes for unorganised workers. 108 After attempting, the macro level environmental analysis of Indian Banking Industry a micro functional level Human Resource Environmental Analysis has been attempted with the help of SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats), it would help to further develop strategic viewpoint about the industry (Table II. 4). TABLE II. 4 HR SWOT ANALYSIS WITH RESPECT TO INDIAN BANKING INDUSTRY STRENGTHS ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Educated Manpower Higher Compliance Amongst Employees Experienced Employees Training Infrastructure Availability Safe Working Environment Responsiveness to Needful Change Strong Regulatory Institutional Framework ? ? ? ? ? OPPORTUNITIES Liberalization of Banking Sector Preferred Industry for Employment Availability of Multi-specialist staff Technology for Improved Interpersonal and Communication Skills Workforce Diversity WEAKNESSES ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Limited Technology Skills Repetitive Tasks Structure Inadequate Remuneration for Attracting Talent Lacking Career Growth Path Rigid Recruitment Policies Hierarchal Structure Rigid Wage Negotiation Process Leadership Deficit at Senior Level ? ? ? ? ? ? ? THREATS Movement of Skilled and Quality Staff Difficulty in Hiring Highly Qualified Youngsters Trend Towards Downsizing Changing Workforce Demographics High Staff Cost Overheads Changing Employees Expectations Entrenched Trade Unionism 109 Key Concerns for Indian Banking Industry The macro level analysis of Banking Industry and micro level analysis with respect to Human Resource functions helped to identify the key concerns related to the Banking Industry. Competition in Banking Industry is very high as Banks are fighting for same share of customers. There are many Banks and non-financial institutions which gave rise to intensified competition. Amongst these, there existed relatively no differentiation in services and every Bank tried to copy each other? s services and technology which increased the level of competition. Competition from the non-Banking financial sector is increasing rapidly as there are substitutes like mutual funds, stocks (shares), government securities, debentures, gold, and real estate acting as a high threat of substitutes. The continuous deregulation has made the Banking Market extremely competitive with greater autonomy, operational flexibility, decontrolled interest rate, and liberalized norms for foreign exchange. The deregulation of the industry coupled with decontrol in interest rates had led to the entry of a number of players in the Banking Industry 43. Alliances and takeovers had occurred on a transatlantic basis. The market share for financial services that Banks hold had declined, while securities firms, mutual funds, and finance companies has grown 44 . Banking Sector needs to build up a strong and efficient financial system by emphasizing on risk based management. 110 In Banking Sector, customers have high bargaining power due to the presence of very large number of alternatives. Banks together with the specialized financial companies that provide finance to customers are available. Recently it was observed that depositors had withdrawn funds from Private and Foreign Banks and invested their money with Public Sector Banks as the cost of switching from one Bank to another was low and almost all Banks provided undifferentiated services. Today customer? s have more information and better understanding about the market, Banks have to be more competitive and customer friendly to serve them. To retain customer? s and market share, Banks started contemplating on building strong relationship with customers. United Bank of India created a revolution in Banking Industry by opening up a boutique branch in Pune in November 2007, as its priority was to provide services to the high net worth customers. Thus, United Bank also recognized the needs of high net worth individuals different from the other customers. United Bank organized corporate golf tournament for customers, music concerts, and screening of Mani Ratnam directed film Ã¢â¬Å¾Guru? 45 . Bank? s top management has started carefully evaluating the impacts for their actions. Recently, before cutting jobs in Private and Foreign Banks, Human Resource managers tried to assess reactions beforehand and they came out with certain proactive steps. Banks persistently worked in the interest of the Society. This chapter focussed on the environment analysis which is, undoubtedly, required for strategy formulation, and at the same is relevant as a backdrop for strategy implementation. For instance, the needful Human Resource Practices have to be continuously evolved and implemented against the ever-changing macro and micro environment of the Banking Organizations. 111 REFERENCES 1. Wei, C. C. (2001) Environmental Scanning as Information Seeking and Organizational Learning, Information Research, 7(1). 2. About us retrieved on 26 December 2010. 3. Goyal, O. P. (1979) Financial Institutions and Economic Growth of India, New Delhi: Light and Life Publishers. 4. About Us retrieved on 26 December 2010. 5. retrieved on 28 December 2010. . Reserve Bank of India (2008) Report on Trend and Progress of Banking in India 2007-08, < www. rbi. org> retrieved on 25 December 2009. 7. Reserve Bank of India (2008) Report on Trend and Progress of Banking in India 2007-08, p. 115. 8. Reserve Bank of Ind ia (2008) ibid (7), p. 114. 9. Reserve Bank of India (2009) Report on Trend and Progress of Banking in India 2008-09, p. 125. 10. Reserve Bank of India (2008) ibid (7). 11. Reserve Bank of India (2009) ibid (9). 12. Reserve Bank of India, (2008) ibid. (7), p. 115. 13. Reserve Bank of India, (2009) ibid. (9), p. 125. 14. Chandrasekhar, C. P. (2005) What is Happening to Indian Banking? Frontline, 22(4): 12 Ã¢â¬â 25. 15. Reserve Bank of India (2008) ibid. (7), p. 116. 16. Reserve Bank of India (2009) ibid. (9), p. 127. 112 17. Reserve Bank of India (2009) ibid. (9), p. 142. 18. PricewaterhouseCoopers Report (2006) retrieved on 25 December 2009. 19. Raju, S. (2010) Financial Inclusion: Enabling Inclusive Growth. The India Economy Review, 7:42-49. 20. Sekar, G. V. Emerging Trends in Technology Adoption by Indian Banks and IT Governance Ã¢â¬â A Practical Guide, < http://www. cab. org. in/Lists/ Knowledge% 20Bank/ Attachments/43/Emerging%20Trends. pdf> retrieved on 3 June 2008. 21. Reserve Bank of India (2008) ibid. (7), p. 81. 22. Chandrashekaran, N. (2009) CII Banking Tech Summit, < http://www. financial express. com/news/indian-banks-behind-global-peers-in-technologypwc/438064> retrieved on 24 March 2009. 23. Jayawardhena, C. and Foley, P. (2000) Changes in Banking Sector Ã¢â¬â The Case of Internet Banking in UK. Journal of Internet Research: Networking and Policy, 10(1):19-30. 24. Rao, R. (2000) Banking @ The Speed of Thought, Business India, October 30November 12: 71-108 25. Reserve Bank of India (2009), ibid. (17). 26. Reserve Bank of India (2009) ibid. (9), p. 141. 27. Reserve Bank of India (2009) ibid. (9), p. 261. 28. Reserve Bank of India (2008) ibid. (7), p. 130. 29.
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At a time when African Americans were faced with laws plainly stating that the Black race was inferior to Whites and when Slavery had been transformed into Jim Crow and the convict leasing system, the African American struggle was at its worst. After States had formed Black Codes in order to limit African American rights and wages, Jim Crow laws were introduced to further racial segregation. An African American during the Jim Crow era could be incarcerated for an act as simple as vagrancy and placed into the convict leasing system which proved to be a treacherous post-slavery and devastating to the dream of equal rights. Though White society had once again found ways to repress the African American community, it was by way of education, journalism and art that African Americans were able to form a common and activist voice. Radical and eloquent minds of African Americans began to form publicly and also became socially accepted as artists, writers and politicians. 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